# Condensed Matter

###### Featured Researches

## Transient heat transfer of superfluid 4 He in nonhomogeneous geometries -- Part I: Second sound, rarefaction, and thermal layer

Transient heat transfer in superfluid 4 He (He II) is a complex process that involves the interplay of the unique counterflow heat-transfer mode, the emission of second-sound waves, and the creation of quantized vortices. Many past researches focused on homogeneous heat transfer of He II in a uniform channel driven by a planar heater. In this paper, we report our systematic study of He II transient heat transfer in nonhomogeneous geometries that are pertinent to emergent applications. By solving the He II two-fluid equation of motion coupled with the Vinen's equation for vortex-density evolution, we examine and compare the characteristics of transient heat transfer from planar, cylindrical, and spherical heaters in He II. Our results show that as the heater turns on, an outgoing second-sound pulse emerges, in which the vortex density grows rapidly. These vortices attenuate the second sound and result in a heated He II layer in front of the heater, i.e., the thermal layer. In the planar case where the vortices are created throughout the space, the second-sound pulse is continuously attenuated, leading to a strong thermal layer that diffusively spreads following the heat pulse. On the contrary, in the cylindrical and the spherical heater cases, vortices are created mainly in a thin thermal layer near the heater surface. As the heat pulse ends, a rarefaction tail develops following the second-sound pulse, in which the temperature drops. This rarefaction tail can promptly suppress the thermal layer and take away all the thermal energy deposited in it. The effects of the heater size, heat flux, pulse duration, and temperature on the thermal-layer dynamics are discussed. We also show how the peak heat flux for the onset of boiling in He II can be studied in our model.

Read more## Polynomial filter diagonalization of large Floquet unitary operators

Periodically driven quantum many-body systems play a central role for our understanding of nonequilibrium phenomena. For studies of quantum chaos, thermalization, many-body localization and time crystals, the properties of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the unitary evolution operator, and their scaling with physical system size L are of interest. While for static systems, powerful methods for the partial diagonalization of the Hamiltonian were developed, the unitary eigenproblem remains daunting. In this paper, we introduce a Krylov space diagonalization method to obtain exact eigenpairs of the unitary Floquet operator with eigenvalue closest to a target on the unit circle. Our method is based on a complex polynomial spectral transformation given by the geometric sum, leading to rapid convergence of the Arnoldi algorithm. We demonstrate that our method is much more efficient than the shift invert method in terms of both runtime and memory requirements, pushing the accessible system sizes to the realm of 20 qubits, with Hilbert space dimensions ??10 6 .

Read more## Low-Temperature Collective Transport and Dynamics in Charge Density Wave Conductor Niobium Triselenide

We investigated low-temperature dynamics in a charge density wave (CDW) conductor NbSe3, a widely studied representative of a class of systems of driven periodic media with quenched disorder and relevant to a wider group of systems exhibiting collective transport behaviors. To date, theoretical efforts have not converged to produce a consistent description of the rich dynamics observed in these systems, especially in the low temperature regime. We developed modern sample preparation techniques and used frequency- and time-domain transport measurements below the second characteristic Peierls CDW transition to investigate the regime of temporally-ordered collective creep in NbSe3 samples in the low temperature regime between 15 K and 32 K. By measuring the frequency of coherent oscillations between two characteristic threshold fields, ET and ET*, we show that in nine high-quality samples, pure, Ta-, or Ti-doped, the current-field relation for the collective transport in this regime closely follows a modified Anderson-Kim form across five orders of magnitude with thermally- and field-activated behavior above ET for a range of temperatures. This study, combined with our transport relaxation measurements, provides relevant length, energy, and time scales that set the dynamics in this regime and reveals that the collective dynamics, governed by large length and energy scales, must be reconciled with microscopic local dynamics, with barriers at orders of magnitude smaller scales. The interplay between the collective and local mechanisms set the dynamics that is responsible for extremely slow (creep-like) collective, yet temporally-ordered behavior. Combined with the existing work, our results paint a consistent picture of a transport phase diagram for CDWs, and density-wave systems in general, and provide essential ingredients for a much-needed correct theoretical description of these systems.

Read more## Spontaneous time reversal symmetry breaking at individual grain boundaries in graphene

Graphene grain boundaries have attracted interest for their ability to host nearly dispersionless electronic bands and magnetic instabilities. Here, we employ quantum transport and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) measurements to experimentally demonstrate a spontaneous breaking of time reversal symmetry (TRS) across individual GBs of chemical vapour deposited graphene. While quantum transport across the GBs indicate spin-scattering-induced dephasing, and hence formation of local magnetic moments, below T?? K, we observe complete lifting of TRS at high carrier densities ( n??? 10 12 cm ?? ) and low temperature ( T?? K). An unprecedented thirty times reduction in the UCF magnitude with increasing doping density further supports the possibility of an emergent frozen magnetic state at the GBs. Our experimental results suggest that realistic GBs of graphene can be a promising resource for new electronic phases and spin-based applications.

Read more## Exciton transport in amorphous polymers and the role of morphology and thermalisation

Understanding the transport mechanism of electronic excitations in conjugated polymers is key to advancing organic optoelectronic applications, such as solar cells, OLEDs and flexible electronics. While crystalline polymers can be studied using solid-state techniques based on lattice periodicity, the characterisation of amorphous polymers is hindered by an intermediate regime of disorder and the associated lack of symmetries. To overcome these hurdles we use a reduced state quantum master equation approach based on the Merrifield exciton formalism. Using this model we study exciton transport in conjugated polymers and its dependence on morphology and temperature. Exciton dynamics consists of a thermalisation process, whose features depend on the relative strength of thermal energy, electronic couplings and disorder, resulting in remarkably different transport regimes. By applying this method to representative systems based on poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) we obtain insight into the role of temperature and disorder on localisation, charge separation, non-equilibrium dynamics, and experimental accessibility of thermal equilibrium states of excitons in amorphous polymers.

Read more## Weakening connections in heterogeneous mean-field models

Two versions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model, which have different transmission rules, are analysed. Both models are considered on a weighted network to simulate a mitigation in the connection between the individuals. The analysis is performed through a heterogeneous mean-field approach on a scale-free network. For a suitable choice of the parameters, both models exhibit a positive infection threshold, when they share the same critical exponents associated with the behaviour of the prevalence against the infection rate. Nevertheless, when the infection threshold vanishes, the prevalence of these models display different algebraic decays to zero for low values of the infection rate.

Read more## Parametric excitation of wrinkles in elastic sheets on elastic and viscoelastic substrates

Thin elastic sheets supported on compliant media form wrinkles under lateral compression. Since the lateral pressure is coupled to the sheet's deformation, varying it periodically in time creates a parametric excitation. We study the resulting parametric resonance of wrinkling modes in sheets supported on semi-infinite elastic or viscoelastic media, at pressures smaller than the critical pressure of static wrinkling. We find distinctive behaviors as a function of excitation amplitude and frequency, including (a) a different dependence of the dynamic wrinkle wavelength on sheet thickness compared to the static wavelength; and (b) a discontinuous decrease of the wrinkle wavelength upon increasing excitation frequency at sufficiently large pressures. In the case of a viscoelastic substrate, resonant wrinkling requires crossing a threshold of excitation amplitude. The frequencies for observing these phenomena in relevant experimental systems are of the order of a kilohertz and above. We discuss experimental implications of the results.

Read more## Ferron dynamics in ultracold atomic gas

We show that the motion of spin-polarized impurity (ferron) in ultracold atomic gas is characterized by a certain critical velocity which can be traced back to the amount of spin imbalance inside the impurity. We have calculated the effective mass of ferron in 2D. We show that the effective mass scales with the surface of the ferron and in general it scales as M eff ??R D?? , where D is the dimensionality of the system. We discuss the impact of these findings, in particular we demonstrate that ferrons become unstable in the vicinity of a vortex.

Read more## Note on possibility of proximity induced spontaneous currents in superconductor/normal metal heterostructures

We analyse the possibility of the appearance of spontaneous currents in proximated superconducting/normal metal (S/N) heterostructure when Cooper pairs penetrate into the normal metal from the superconductor. In particular, we calculate the free energy of the S/N structure. We show that whereas the free energy of the N film F N in the presence of the proximity effect increases compared to the normal state, the total free energy, which includes the boundary term F B , decreases. The condensate current decreases F N , but increases the total free energy making the current-carrying state of the S/N system energetically unfavorable.

Read more###### Other Condensed Matter

###### Transient heat transfer of superfluid 4 He in nonhomogeneous geometries -- Part I: Second sound, rarefaction, and thermal layer

Transient heat transfer in superfluid 4 He (He II) is a complex process that involves the interplay of the unique counterflow heat-transfer mode, the emission of second-sound waves, and the creation of quantized vortices. Many past researches focused on homogeneous heat transfer of He II in a uniform channel driven by a planar heater. In this paper, we report our systematic study of He II transient heat transfer in nonhomogeneous geometries that are pertinent to emergent applications. By solving the He II two-fluid equation of motion coupled with the Vinen's equation for vortex-density evolution, we examine and compare the characteristics of transient heat transfer from planar, cylindrical, and spherical heaters in He II. Our results show that as the heater turns on, an outgoing second-sound pulse emerges, in which the vortex density grows rapidly. These vortices attenuate the second sound and result in a heated He II layer in front of the heater, i.e., the thermal layer. In the planar case where the vortices are created throughout the space, the second-sound pulse is continuously attenuated, leading to a strong thermal layer that diffusively spreads following the heat pulse. On the contrary, in the cylindrical and the spherical heater cases, vortices are created mainly in a thin thermal layer near the heater surface. As the heat pulse ends, a rarefaction tail develops following the second-sound pulse, in which the temperature drops. This rarefaction tail can promptly suppress the thermal layer and take away all the thermal energy deposited in it. The effects of the heater size, heat flux, pulse duration, and temperature on the thermal-layer dynamics are discussed. We also show how the peak heat flux for the onset of boiling in He II can be studied in our model.

More from Other Condensed Matter###### On the Order Parameter of the Continuous Phase Transition in the Classical and Quantum Mechanical limits

The mean field theory is revisited in the classical and quantum mechanical limits. Taking into account the boundary conditions at the phase transition and the third law of the thermodynamics the physical properties of the ordered and disordered phases were reported. The equation for the order parameter predicts the occurrence of a saturation of Ψ 2 = 1 near ? S , the temperature below the quantum mechanical ground state is reached. The theoretical predictions are also compared with high resolution thermal expansion data of SrTiO 3 monocrystalline samples and other some previous results. An excellent agreement has been found suggesting a universal behavior of the theoretical model to describe continuous structural phase transitions.

More from Other Condensed Matter###### Eigenprojectors, Bloch vectors and quantum geometry of N -band systems

The eigenvalues of a parameter-dependent N?N Hamiltonian matrix form a band structure in parameter space. Quantum geometric properties (Berry curvature, quantum metric, etc.) of such N -band systems are usually computed from parameter-dependent eigenstates. This approach faces several difficulties, including gauge ambiguities and singularities in the multicomponent eigenfunctions. In order to circumvent this problem, this work exposes an alternative approach based on eigenprojectors and (generalized) Bloch vectors. First, an expansion of each eigenprojector as a matrix polynomial in the Hamiltonian is deduced, and using SU( N ) Gell-Mann matrices an equivalent expansion of each Bloch vector is found. In a second step, expressions for the N -band Berry curvature and quantum metric in terms of Bloch vectors are obtained. This leads to new explicit Berry curvature formulas in terms of the Hamiltonian vector, generalizing the well-known two-band formula to arbitrary N . Moreover, a detailed treatment is given for the case of a particle-hole symmetric energy spectrum, which occurs in systems with a chiral or charge conjugation symmetry. For illustrating the formalism, several model Hamiltonians featuring a multifold linear band crossing are discussed; they have identical energy spectra but completely different geometric and topological properties. The methodology used in this work is more broadly applicable to compute any physical quantity, or to study the quantum dynamics of any observable without the explicit construction of energy eigenstates.

More from Other Condensed Matter###### Disordered Systems and Neural Networks

###### Polynomial filter diagonalization of large Floquet unitary operators

Periodically driven quantum many-body systems play a central role for our understanding of nonequilibrium phenomena. For studies of quantum chaos, thermalization, many-body localization and time crystals, the properties of eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the unitary evolution operator, and their scaling with physical system size L are of interest. While for static systems, powerful methods for the partial diagonalization of the Hamiltonian were developed, the unitary eigenproblem remains daunting. In this paper, we introduce a Krylov space diagonalization method to obtain exact eigenpairs of the unitary Floquet operator with eigenvalue closest to a target on the unit circle. Our method is based on a complex polynomial spectral transformation given by the geometric sum, leading to rapid convergence of the Arnoldi algorithm. We demonstrate that our method is much more efficient than the shift invert method in terms of both runtime and memory requirements, pushing the accessible system sizes to the realm of 20 qubits, with Hilbert space dimensions ??10 6 .

More from Disordered Systems and Neural Networks###### Non-equilibrium criticality and efficient exploration of glassy landscapes with memory dynamics

Spin glasses are notoriously difficult to study both analytically and numerically due to the presence of frustration and metastability. Their highly non-convex landscapes require collective updates to explore efficiently. Currently, most state-of-the-art algorithms rely on stochastic spin clusters to perform non-local updates, but such "cluster algorithms" lack general efficiency. Here, we introduce a non-equilibrium approach for simulating spin glasses based on classical dynamics with memory. By simulating various classes of 3d spin glasses (Edwards-Anderson, partially-frustrated, and fully-frustrated models), we find that memory dynamically promotes critical spin clusters during time evolution, in a self-organizing manner. This facilitates an efficient exploration of the low-temperature phases of spin glasses.

More from Disordered Systems and Neural Networks###### Ensemble perspective for understanding temporal credit assignment

Recurrent neural networks are widely used for modeling spatio-temporal sequences in both nature language processing and neural population dynamics. However, understanding the temporal credit assignment is hard. Here, we propose that each individual connection in the recurrent computation is modeled by a spike and slab distribution, rather than a precise weight value. We then derive the mean-field algorithm to train the network at the ensemble level. The method is then applied to classify handwritten digits when pixels are read in sequence, and to the multisensory integration task that is a fundamental cognitive function of animals. Our model reveals important connections that determine the overall performance of the network. The model also shows how spatio-temporal information is processed through the hyperparameters of the distribution, and moreover reveals distinct types of emergent neural selectivity. It is thus promising to study the temporal credit assignment in recurrent neural networks from the ensemble perspective.

More from Disordered Systems and Neural Networks###### Strongly Correlated Electrons

###### Low-Temperature Collective Transport and Dynamics in Charge Density Wave Conductor Niobium Triselenide

We investigated low-temperature dynamics in a charge density wave (CDW) conductor NbSe3, a widely studied representative of a class of systems of driven periodic media with quenched disorder and relevant to a wider group of systems exhibiting collective transport behaviors. To date, theoretical efforts have not converged to produce a consistent description of the rich dynamics observed in these systems, especially in the low temperature regime. We developed modern sample preparation techniques and used frequency- and time-domain transport measurements below the second characteristic Peierls CDW transition to investigate the regime of temporally-ordered collective creep in NbSe3 samples in the low temperature regime between 15 K and 32 K. By measuring the frequency of coherent oscillations between two characteristic threshold fields, ET and ET*, we show that in nine high-quality samples, pure, Ta-, or Ti-doped, the current-field relation for the collective transport in this regime closely follows a modified Anderson-Kim form across five orders of magnitude with thermally- and field-activated behavior above ET for a range of temperatures. This study, combined with our transport relaxation measurements, provides relevant length, energy, and time scales that set the dynamics in this regime and reveals that the collective dynamics, governed by large length and energy scales, must be reconciled with microscopic local dynamics, with barriers at orders of magnitude smaller scales. The interplay between the collective and local mechanisms set the dynamics that is responsible for extremely slow (creep-like) collective, yet temporally-ordered behavior. Combined with the existing work, our results paint a consistent picture of a transport phase diagram for CDWs, and density-wave systems in general, and provide essential ingredients for a much-needed correct theoretical description of these systems.

More from Strongly Correlated Electrons###### Non-Landau Fermi Liquid induced by Bose Metal

Understanding non-Landau Fermi liquids in dimensions higher than one, has been a subject of great interest. Such phases may serve as parent states for other unconventional phases of quantum matter, in a similar manner that conventional broken symmetry states can be understood as instabilities of the Landau Fermi liquid. In this work, we investigate the emergence of a novel non-Landau Fermi liquid in two dimensions, where the fermions with quadratic band-touching dispersion interact with a Bose metal. The bosonic excitations in the Bose metal possess an extended nodal-line spectrum in momentum space, which arises due to the subsystem symmetry or the restricted motion of bosons. Using renormalization group analysis and direct computations, we show that the extended infrared (IR) singularity of the Bose metal leads to a line of interacting fixed points of novel non-Landau Fermi liquids, where the anomalous dimension of the fermions varies continuously, akin to the Luttinger liquid in one dimension. Further, the multi-patch generalization of the model is used to explore other unusual features of the resulting ground state.

More from Strongly Correlated Electrons###### Quantum magnetism on small-world networks

While classical spin systems in random networks have been intensively studied, much less is known about quantum magnets in random graphs. Here, we investigate interacting quantum spins on small-world networks, building on mean-field theory and extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Starting from one-dimensional (1D) rings, we consider two situations: all-to-all interacting and long-range interactions randomly added. The effective infinite dimension of the lattice leads to a magnetic ordering at finite temperature T c with mean-field criticality. Nevertheless, in contrast to the classical case, we find two distinct power-law behaviors for T c versus the average strength of the extra couplings. This is controlled by a competition between a characteristic length scale of the random graph and the thermal correlation length of the underlying 1D system, thus challenging mean-field theories. We also investigate the fate of a gapped 1D spin chain against the small-world effect.

More from Strongly Correlated Electrons###### Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics

###### Spontaneous time reversal symmetry breaking at individual grain boundaries in graphene

Graphene grain boundaries have attracted interest for their ability to host nearly dispersionless electronic bands and magnetic instabilities. Here, we employ quantum transport and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) measurements to experimentally demonstrate a spontaneous breaking of time reversal symmetry (TRS) across individual GBs of chemical vapour deposited graphene. While quantum transport across the GBs indicate spin-scattering-induced dephasing, and hence formation of local magnetic moments, below T?? K, we observe complete lifting of TRS at high carrier densities ( n??? 10 12 cm ?? ) and low temperature ( T?? K). An unprecedented thirty times reduction in the UCF magnitude with increasing doping density further supports the possibility of an emergent frozen magnetic state at the GBs. Our experimental results suggest that realistic GBs of graphene can be a promising resource for new electronic phases and spin-based applications.

More from Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics###### Hardware-aware in-situ Boltzmann machine learning using stochastic magnetic tunnel junctions

One of the big challenges of current electronics is the design and implementation of hardware neural networks that perform fast and energy-efficient machine learning. Spintronics is a promising catalyst for this field with the capabilities of nanosecond operation and compatibility with existing microelectronics. Considering large-scale, viable neuromorphic systems however, variability of device properties is a serious concern. In this paper, we show an autonomously operating circuit that performs hardware-aware machine learning utilizing probabilistic neurons built with stochastic magnetic tunnel junctions. We show that in-situ learning of weights and biases in a Boltzmann machine can counter device-to-device variations and learn the probability distribution of meaningful operations such as a full adder. This scalable autonomously operating learning circuit using spintronics-based neurons could be especially of interest for standalone artificial-intelligence devices capable of fast and efficient learning at the edge.

More from Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics###### Universal non-Hermitian skin effect in two and higher dimensions

Skin effect, experimentally discovered in one dimension, describes the physical phenomenon that on an open chain, an extensive number of eigenstates of a non-Hermitian hamiltonian are localized at the end(s) of the chain. Here in two and higher dimensions, we establish a theorem that the skin effect exists, if and only if periodic-boundary spectrum of the hamiltonian covers a finite area on the complex plane. This theorem establishes the universality of the effect, because the above condition is satisfied in almost every generic non-Hermitian hamiltonian, and, unlike in one dimension, is compatible with all spatial symmetries. We propose two new types of skin effect in two and higher dimensions: the corner-skin effect where all eigenstates are localized at one corner of the system, and the geometry-dependent-skin effect where skin modes disappear for systems of a particular shape, but appear on generic polygons. An immediate corollary of our theorem is that any non-Hermitian system having exceptional points (lines) in two (three) dimensions exhibits skin effect, making this phenomenon accessible to experiments in photonic crystals, Weyl semimetals, and Kondo insulators.

More from Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics###### Materials Science

###### Exciton transport in amorphous polymers and the role of morphology and thermalisation

Understanding the transport mechanism of electronic excitations in conjugated polymers is key to advancing organic optoelectronic applications, such as solar cells, OLEDs and flexible electronics. While crystalline polymers can be studied using solid-state techniques based on lattice periodicity, the characterisation of amorphous polymers is hindered by an intermediate regime of disorder and the associated lack of symmetries. To overcome these hurdles we use a reduced state quantum master equation approach based on the Merrifield exciton formalism. Using this model we study exciton transport in conjugated polymers and its dependence on morphology and temperature. Exciton dynamics consists of a thermalisation process, whose features depend on the relative strength of thermal energy, electronic couplings and disorder, resulting in remarkably different transport regimes. By applying this method to representative systems based on poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) we obtain insight into the role of temperature and disorder on localisation, charge separation, non-equilibrium dynamics, and experimental accessibility of thermal equilibrium states of excitons in amorphous polymers.

More from Materials Science###### Protonic Conduction Induced Selective Room Temperature Hydrogen Response in ZnO/NiO Heterojunction Surfaces

In this paper we show that the ionic conduction through surface chemisorbed ambient moisture leads to the remarkably high room temperature selective response towards hydrogen gas. The surface adsorbed moisture acts as surface states and shows ionic conduction, as a result of smaller size of ZnO nanoparticles of 20 +/- 5 nm. This response is enhanced remarkably i.e. from 10% to 190% for 1200 ppm H2 gas when p-type NiO quasi-nanowires (width ~50 nm) are mixed with these n-type ZnO nanoparticles to form a homogenous NiO/ZnO nano-bulk p-n heterostructure. The maximum response is obtained for about 50-50 % composition of NiO/ZnO although it is of still n-type character. The dominant carrier type reversal from n to p type takes place at rather high NiO content of about 60-80% in ZnO, depicting dominating contribution of ZnO into the response. The parallel surface ionic current through chemisorbed moisture (surface states) has been identified as a primary factor for high sensitivity at room temperature. Thus, the presence of heterojunction barrier at the NiO-ZnO interface assisted with the surface ionic conductivity due to adsorbed moisture results in large, selective response to hydrogen at room temperature.

More from Materials Science###### g-SiC6 Monolayer: A New Graphene-like Dirac Cone Material with a High Fermi Velocity

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones have been intrigued by many unique properties, i.e., the effective masses of carriers close to zero and Fermi velocity of ultrahigh, which yields a great possibility in high-performance electronic devices. In this work, using first-principles calculations, we have predicted a new Dirac cone material of silicon carbide with the new stoichiometries, named g-SiC6 monolayer, which is composed of sp2 hybridized with a graphene-like structure. The detailed calculations have revealed that g-SiC6 has outstanding dynamical, thermal, and mechanical stabilities, and the mechanical and electronic properties are still isotropic. Of great interest is that the Fermi velocity of g-SiC6 monolayer is the highest in silicon carbide Dirac materials until now. The Dirac cone of the g-SiC6 is controllable by an in-plane uniaxial strain and shear strain, which is promised to realize a direct application in electronics and optoelectronics. Moreover, we found that new stoichiometries AB6 (A, B = C, Si, and Ge) compounds with the similar SiC6 monolayer structure are both dynamics stable and possess Dirac cones, and their Fermi velocity was also calculated in this paper. Given the outstanding properties of those new types of silicon carbide monolayer, which is a promising 2D material for further exploring the potential applications.

More from Materials Science###### Statistical Mechanics

###### Weakening connections in heterogeneous mean-field models

Two versions of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model, which have different transmission rules, are analysed. Both models are considered on a weighted network to simulate a mitigation in the connection between the individuals. The analysis is performed through a heterogeneous mean-field approach on a scale-free network. For a suitable choice of the parameters, both models exhibit a positive infection threshold, when they share the same critical exponents associated with the behaviour of the prevalence against the infection rate. Nevertheless, when the infection threshold vanishes, the prevalence of these models display different algebraic decays to zero for low values of the infection rate.

More from Statistical Mechanics###### Large deviations of currents in diffusions with reflective boundaries

We study the large deviations of current-type observables defined for Markov diffusion processes evolving in smooth bounded regions of R d with reflections at the boundaries. We derive for these the correct boundary conditions that must be imposed on the spectral problem associated with the scaled cumulant generating function, which gives, by Legendre transform, the rate function characterizing the likelihood of current fluctuations. Two methods for obtaining the boundary conditions are presented, based on the diffusive limit of random walks and on the Feynman--Kac equation underlying the evolution of generating functions. Our results generalize recent works on density-type observables, and are illustrated for an N -particle single-file diffusion on a ring, which can be mapped to a reflected N -dimensional diffusion.

More from Statistical Mechanics###### Functional Renormalisation Group for Brownian Motion II: Accelerated Dynamics in and out of Equilibrium

Here we numerically solve the equations derived in part I of this two-part series and verify their validity. In particular we use the functional Renormalisation Group (fRG) flow equations to obtain effective potentials for initially highly anharmonic and non-polynomial potentials, including potentials with multiple trapping wells and barriers, and at different temperatures. The numerical computations determining the effective action are much faster than the direct simulation of the stochastic dynamics to which we compare our fRG results. We benchmark our numerical solutions to the flow equations by comparing the first two equilibrium cumulants from the fRG against the Boltzmann distribution. We obtain excellent agreement between the two methods demonstrating that numerical solutions for the effective potential can be accurately obtained in all the highly unharmonic cases we examined. We then assess the utility of the effective potential to describe the equilibrium 2-point correlation function ?�x(0)x(t)??and the relevant correlation time. We find that when Wavefunction Renormalisation is also utilized, these are obtained to percent accuracy for temperatures down to the typical height of the potentials' barriers but accuracy is quickly lost for lower temperatures. We also show how the fRG can offer strong agreement with direct numerical simulation of the nonequilibrium evolution of average position and variance. Also, the fRG solution represents the whole ensemble average, further adding to its convenience over other techniques, such as direct numerical simulations or solving the Fokker-Planck diffusion equation, which require multiple solutions with different initial conditions to construct averages over an ensemble.

More from Statistical Mechanics###### Soft Condensed Matter

###### Parametric excitation of wrinkles in elastic sheets on elastic and viscoelastic substrates

Thin elastic sheets supported on compliant media form wrinkles under lateral compression. Since the lateral pressure is coupled to the sheet's deformation, varying it periodically in time creates a parametric excitation. We study the resulting parametric resonance of wrinkling modes in sheets supported on semi-infinite elastic or viscoelastic media, at pressures smaller than the critical pressure of static wrinkling. We find distinctive behaviors as a function of excitation amplitude and frequency, including (a) a different dependence of the dynamic wrinkle wavelength on sheet thickness compared to the static wavelength; and (b) a discontinuous decrease of the wrinkle wavelength upon increasing excitation frequency at sufficiently large pressures. In the case of a viscoelastic substrate, resonant wrinkling requires crossing a threshold of excitation amplitude. The frequencies for observing these phenomena in relevant experimental systems are of the order of a kilohertz and above. We discuss experimental implications of the results.

More from Soft Condensed Matter###### Thermodynamic equilibrium of biological macromolecules under mechanical constraints

Equilibrating proteins and other biomacromolecules is cardinal for molecular dynamics simulation of such biological systems in which they perform free dynamics without any externally-applied mechanical constraint, until thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding is attained. However, in some important cases, we have to equilibrate the system of interest in the constant presence of certain constraints, being referred to as constrained equilibration in the present work. A clear illustration of this type is a single amyloid \b{eta}-strand or RNA, when the reaction coordinate is defined as the distance between the two ends of the strand and we are interested in carrying out replica-exchange umbrella sampling to map the associated free energy profile as the dependent quantity of interest. In such cases, each sample has to be equilibrated with the two ends fixed. Here, we introduced a simulation trick to perform this so-called constrained equilibration using steered molecular dynamics. We then applied this method to equilibrate a single, stretched \b{eta}-strand of an amyloid beta dodecamer fibril with fixed ends. Examining the associated curves of the total energy and the force exerted on the practically-fixed SMD atom over the total timespan broadly supported the validity of this kind of equilibration.

More from Soft Condensed Matter###### DNA Barcodes using a Double Nanopore System

The potential of a double nanopore system to determine DNA barcodes has been demonstrated experimentally. By carrying out Brownian dynamics simulation on a coarse-grained model DNA with protein tag (barcodes) at known locations along the chain backbone, we demonstrate that due to large variation of velocities of the chain segments between the tags, it is inevitable to under/overestimate the genetic lengths from the experimental current blockade and time of flight data. We demonstrate that it is the tension propagation along the chain's backbone that governs the motion of the entire chain and is the key element to explain the non uniformity and disparate velocities of the tags and DNA monomers under translocation that introduce errors in measurement of the length segments between protein tags. Using simulation data we further demonstrate that it is important to consider the dynamics of the entire chain and suggest methods to accurately decipher barcodes. We introduce and validate an interpolation scheme using simulation data for a broad distribution of tag separations and suggest how to implement the scheme experimentally.

More from Soft Condensed Matter###### Quantum Gases

###### Ferron dynamics in ultracold atomic gas

We show that the motion of spin-polarized impurity (ferron) in ultracold atomic gas is characterized by a certain critical velocity which can be traced back to the amount of spin imbalance inside the impurity. We have calculated the effective mass of ferron in 2D. We show that the effective mass scales with the surface of the ferron and in general it scales as M eff ??R D?? , where D is the dimensionality of the system. We discuss the impact of these findings, in particular we demonstrate that ferrons become unstable in the vicinity of a vortex.

More from Quantum Gases###### Generating and detecting topological phases with higher Chern number

Topological phases with broken time-reversal symmetry and Chern number |C|>=2 are of fundamental interest, but it remains unclear how to engineer the desired topological Hamiltonian within the paradigm of spin-orbit-coupled particles hopping only between nearest neighbours of a static lattice. We show that phases with higher Chern number arise when the spin-orbit coupling satisfies a combination of spin and spatial rotation symmetries. We leverage this result both to construct minimal two-band tight binding Hamiltonians that exhibit |C|=2,3 phases, and to show that the Chern number of one of the energy bands can be inferred from the particle spin polarization at the high-symmetry crystal momenta in the Brillouin zone. Using these insights, we provide a detailed experimental scheme for the specific realization of a time-reversal-breaking topological phase with |C|=2 for ultracold atomic gases on a triangular lattice subject to spin-orbit coupling. The Chern number can be directly measured using Zeeman spectroscopy; for fermions the spin amplitudes can be measured directly via time of flight, while for bosons this is preceded by a short Bloch oscillation. Our results provide a pathway to the realization and detection of novel topological phases with higher Chern number in ultracold atomic gases.

More from Quantum Gases###### Cavity QED with Quantum Gases: New Paradigms in Many-Body Physics

We review the recent developments and the current status in the field of quantum-gas cavity QED. Since the first experimental demonstration of atomic self-ordering in a system composed of a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode of a high- Q optical cavity, the field has rapidly evolved over the past decade. The composite quantum-gas--cavity systems offer the opportunity to implement, simulate, and experimentally test fundamental solid-state Hamiltonians, as well as to realize non-equilibrium many-body phenomena beyond conventional condensed-matter scenarios. This hinges on the unique possibility to design and control in open quantum environments photon-induced tunable-range interaction potentials for the atoms using tailored pump lasers and dynamic cavity fields. Notable examples range from Hubbard-like models with long-range interactions exhibiting a lattice-supersolid phase, over emergent magnetic orderings and quasicrystalline symmetries, to the appearance of dynamic gauge potentials and non-equilibrium topological phases. Experiments have managed to load spin-polarized as well as spinful quantum gases into various cavity geometries and engineer versatile tunable-range atomic interactions. This led to the experimental observation of spontaneous discrete and continuous symmetry breaking with the appearance of soft-modes as well as supersolidity, density and spin self-ordering, dynamic spin-orbit coupling, and non-equilibrium dynamical self-ordered phases among others. In addition, quantum-gas--cavity setups offer new platforms for quantum-enhanced measurements. In this review, starting from an introduction to basic models, we pedagogically summarize a broad range of theoretical developments and put them in perspective with the current and near future state-of-art experiments.

More from Quantum Gases###### Superconductivity

###### Note on possibility of proximity induced spontaneous currents in superconductor/normal metal heterostructures

We analyse the possibility of the appearance of spontaneous currents in proximated superconducting/normal metal (S/N) heterostructure when Cooper pairs penetrate into the normal metal from the superconductor. In particular, we calculate the free energy of the S/N structure. We show that whereas the free energy of the N film F N in the presence of the proximity effect increases compared to the normal state, the total free energy, which includes the boundary term F B , decreases. The condensate current decreases F N , but increases the total free energy making the current-carrying state of the S/N system energetically unfavorable.

More from Superconductivity###### Unconventional quantum vortex matter state hosts quantum oscillations in the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors

A central question in the underdoped cuprates pertains to the nature of the pseudogap ground state. A conventional metallic ground state of the pseudogap region has been argued to host quantum oscillations upon destruction of the superconducting order parameter by modest magnetic fields. Here we use low applied measurement currents and millikelvin temperatures on ultra-pure single crystals of underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x to unearth an unconventional quantum vortex matter ground state characterized by vanishing electrical resistivity, magnetic hysteresis, and non-ohmic electrical transport characteristics beyond the highest laboratory accessible static fields. A new model of the pseudogap ground state is now required to explain quantum oscillations that are hosted by the bulk quantum vortex matter state without experiencing sizeable additional damping in the presence of a large maximum superconducting gap; possibilities include a pair density wave.

More from Superconductivity###### Origin of Topological Surface Superconductivity in FeSe 0.45 Te 0.55

The engineering of Majorana zero modes in topological superconductors, a new paradigm for the realization of topological quantum computing and topology-based devices, has been hampered by the absence of materials with sufficiently large superconducting gaps. Recent experiments, however, have provided enthralling evidence for the existence of topological surface superconductivity in the iron-based superconductor FeSe 0.45 Te 0.55 possessing a full s ± -wave gap of a few meV. Here, we propose a mechanism for the emergence of topological superconductivity on the surface of FeSe 0.45 Te 0.55 by demonstrating that the interplay between the s ± -wave symmetry of the superconducting gap, recently observed surface magnetism, and a Rashba spin-orbit interaction gives rise to several topological superconducting phases. Moreover, the proposed mechanism explains a series of experimentally observed hallmarks of topological superconductivity, such as the emergence of Majorana zero modes in the center of vortex cores and at the end of line defects, as well as of chiral Majorana edge modes along certain types of domain walls. We also propose that the spatial distribution of supercurrents near a domain wall is a characteristic signature measurable via a scanning superconducting quantum interference device that can distinguish between chiral Majorana edge modes and trivial in-gap states.

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