European Journal of Nutrition | 2019
Effects of a multicomponent exercise program combined with calcium–vitamin D3-enriched milk on health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in older men: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
PurposeOsteoporosis is associated with both lower health-related quality of life and depression in older people. We examined the independent and combined effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin D3 fortified milk on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and depression in older men.MethodsIn this 12-month, factorial design randomized controlled trial, 180 healthy community-dwelling men aged 50–79\xa0years with normal to below average bone mineral density were allocated into one of four groups: exercise\u2009+\u2009fortified milk; exercise; fortified milk; or controls. Exercise consisted of high-intensity resistance training with weight-bearing exercise (3\xa0days per week; 60–75\xa0min per session). Men assigned to fortified milk consumed 400\xa0ml/day of low-fat milk containing 1000\xa0mg/day calcium and 800IU/day vitamin D3. Questionnaires were used to assess HR-QoL (SF-36) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) at baseline, and 6 and 12\xa0months. A linear mixed model analysis was used to test whether there was a synergistic interaction between exercise and calcium–vitamin D3. If no significant interactions were detected, the main effects of exercise and fortified milk were examined.ResultsMean adherence to the exercise program and fortified milk was 67% (95% CI 61, 73%) and 90% (95% CI 86, 93%), respectively. There were no exercise-by-fortified milk interactions nor main effects of exercise or calcium–vitamin D for any of the HR-QoL measures or depressive symptoms.ConclusionIn healthy community-dwelling older men, exercise training and/or calcium–vitamin D fortified milk did not improve HR-QoL or depressive symptoms.