Endocrine Pathology | 2019
Parathyroid Neoplasms: Immunohistochemical Characterization and Long Noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Expression
Parathyroid adenomas are slow growing benign neoplasms associated with hypercalcemia, while atypical parathyroid adenomas and parathyroid carcinomas are uncommon tumors and their histologic features may overlap with parathyroid adenomas. LncRNAs participate in transcription and in epigenetic or post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and probably contribute to carcinogenesis. We analyzed a group of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic parathyroid lesions to determine the best immunohistochemical markers to characterize these lesions and to determine the role of selected lncRNAs in tumor progression. A tissue microarray consisting of 111 cases of normal parathyroid (n\xa0=\u200914), primary hyperplasia (n\xa0=\u200915), secondary hyperplasia (n\xa0=\u200910), tertiary hyperplasia (n\xa0=\u200911), adenomas (n\xa0=\u200950), atypical adenomas (n\xa0=\u20097), and carcinomas (n\xa0=\u20094) was used. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against chromogranin A, synaptophysin, parathyroid hormone, and insulinoma-associated protein 1(INSM1) was used. Expression of lncRNAs including metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript one (MALAT1), HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), and long intergenic non-protein coding regulator of reprograming (Linc-ROR or ROR) was also analyzed by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. All of the parathyroid tissues were positive for parathyroid hormone, while most cases were positive for chromogranin A (98%). Synaptophysin was expressed in only 12 cases (11%) and INMS1 was negative in all cases. ROR was significantly downregulated during progression from normal, hyperplastic, and adenomatous parathyroid to parathyroid carcinomas. These results show that parathyroid hormone and chromogranin A are useful markers for parathyroid neoplasms, while synaptophysin and INSM1 are not very sensitive broad-spectrum markers for these neoplasms. LincRNA ROR may function as a tumor suppressor during parathyroid tumor progression.