Food microbiology | 2019
Volatile profile of reduced alcohol wines fermented with selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts under different aeration conditions.
Over the last decades there has been an increase in ethanol concentration in wine. High ethanol concentration may impact negatively wine flavor and can be associated with harmful effects on human health. In this study, we investigated a microbiological approach to reduce wine ethanol concentration, using three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae under different aeration conditions. At the same time, we evaluated the volatile profile of the resulting reduced alcohol Chardonnay wines. Results showed that the non-Saccharomyces yeasts tested were able to reduce wine ethanol concentration when oxygen was provided. Compared to S. cerevisiae wines, ethanol reduction was 1.6% v/v, 0.9% v/v and 1.0% v/v for M. pulcherrima, T. delbrueckii and Z. bailii sequential fermentations, respectively. Under the conditions evaluated here, aeration did not affect acetic acid production for any of the non-Saccharomyces strains tested. Although aeration affected wine volatile profiles, this was depended on yeast strain. Thus, wines produced with M. pulcherrima under aeration of 0.05 volume of air per volume of culture per minute (VVM) showed excessive ethyl acetate content, while Z. bailli wines produced with 0.05 VVM aeration had increased concentrations of higher alcohols and volatile acids. Increased concentrations of these compounds over their sensory thresholds, are likely to impact negatively on wine sensory profile. Contrarily, all three non-Saccharomyces strains under 0.025 VVM aeration conditions produced wines with reduced ethanol concentration and acceptable chemical volatile profiles.