Bioorganic chemistry | 2019
3D-QSAR pharmacophore modelling, virtual screening and docking studies for lead discovery of a novel scaffold for VEGFR 2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.
A series of novel 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine derivatives was successfully designed, synthesized and evaluated as a new chemical scaffold with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 2) inhibitory activity. Compounds 6c and 6b showed enzyme inhibition of 97% and 87% at 10\u202fµM, respectively, and exhibited potent dose-related VEGFR 2 inhibition with IC50 values of 0.85\u202fµM and 2.26\u202fµM, respectively. The design of the 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine scaffold was implemented via consecutive molecular modelling protocols prior to the synthesis and biological evaluation of the derivatives. First, sorafenib was docked in the binding site of VEGFR 2 to study its binding orientation and affinity, followed by the generation of a valid 3D QSAR pharmacophore model for use in the virtual screening of different 3D databases. Structures with promising pharmacophore-based virtual screening results were refined using molecular docking studies in the binding site of VEGFR 2. A novel scaffold was designed by incorporating the results of the pharmacophore model generation and molecular docking studies. The new scaffold showed hydrophobic interactions with the kinase front pocket that may be attributed to increasing residence time in VEGFR 2, which is a key success factor for ligand optimization in drug discovery. Different derivatives of the novel scaffold were validated using docking studies and pharmacophore mapping, where they exhibited promising results as VEGFR 2 inhibitors to be synthesized and biologically evaluated. 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine is a new scaffold that can be further optimized for the synthesis of promising VEGFR 2 inhibitors.