Computational Toxicology | 2021
Integrating publicly available information to screen potential candidates for chemical prioritization under the Toxic Substances Control Act: A proof of concept case study using genotoxicity and carcinogenicity
Abstract The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) became law in the U.S. in 1976 and was amended in 2016. The amended law requires the U.S. EPA to perform risk-based evaluations of existing chemicals. Here, we developed a tiered approach to screen potential candidates based on their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity information to inform the selection of candidate chemicals for prioritization under TSCA. The approach was underpinned by a large database of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity information that had been compiled from various public sources. Carcinogenicity data included weight-of-evidence human carcinogenicity evaluations and animal cancer data. Genotoxicity data included bacterial gene mutation data from the Salmonella (Ames) and Escherichia coli WP2 assays and chromosomal mutation (clastogenicity) data. Additionally, Ames and clastogenicity outcomes were predicted using the alert schemes within the OECD QSAR Toolbox and the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST). The evaluation workflows for carcinogenicity and genotoxicity were developed along with associated scoring schemes to make an overall outcome determination. For this case study, two sets of chemicals, the TSCA Active Inventory non-confidential portion list available on the EPA CompTox Chemicals Dashboard (33,364 chemicals, ‘TSCA Active List’) and a representative proof-of-concept (POC) set of 238 chemicals were profiled through the two workflows to make determinations of carcinogenicity and genotoxicity potential. Of the 33,364 substances on the ‘TSCA Active List’, overall calls could be made for 20,371 substances. Here 46.67%% (9507) of substances were non-genotoxic, 0.5% (103) were scored as inconclusive, 43.93% (8949) were predicted genotoxic and 8.9% (1812) were genotoxic. Overall calls for genotoxicity could be made for 225 of the 238 POC chemicals. Of these, 40.44% (91) were non-genotoxic, 2.67% (6) were inconclusive, 6.22% (14) were predicted genotoxic, and 50.67% (114) genotoxic. The approach shows promise as a means to identify potential candidates for prioritization from a genotoxicity and carcinogenicity perspective.