Injury | 2019
Major concern in the multiligament-injured knee treatment: A systematic review.
PURPOSE\nThe purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of multiligament knee injuries in three major aspects, specifically (1) surgical versus nonoperative treatment, (2) repair versus reconstruction of injured ligamentous structures, and (3) early versus late surgery of damaged ligaments.\n\n\nMETHODS\nTwo independent reviewers performed a search on PubMed from 1966 to March 2016 using Levy s review as a starting-point, and the same terms knee dislocation, multiple ligament-injured knee, and multiligament knee reconstruction. Study inclusion criteria were (1) levels I to IV evidence, (2) multiligament defined as disruption of at least 2 of the 4 major knee ligaments, (3) measures of functional and clinical outcomes, and (4) minimum of 12 months follow-up, with a mean of at least 24 months.\n\n\nRESULTS\nTwo high-level studies compared surgical treatment with nonoperative treatment. There was a higher Lyshom scores (85 v 67) in surgically treated patients, as well as higher excellent/good IKDC scores (69% v 64%) and return to sport (41% v 18%). There were four studies comparing repair with reconstruction of damaged structures, with similar mean Lysholm scores (84 v 84) and excellent/good IKDC scores (63% v 63%). Nevertheless, repair of the posterolateral corner had a higher failure rate (39% v 8%) and a lower return to sport activities (25% v 51%). Similarly, repair of the cruciates achieved decreased stability and range of motion. There were six studies comparing early surgery (within 3 weeks) with delayed surgery. Early treatment resulted in higher mean Lysholm scores (89 v 82) and a higher percentage of excellent/good IKDC scores (57% v 41%), as well as higher mean ROM (129° v 124°).\n\n\nCONCLUSIONS\nOur review suggests that the best treatment does not exist, but better functional and clinical outcomes have been achieved with reconstruction rather than repair. Surgery must be performed within the first three weeks. Delayed ACL reconstruction allows to reduce arthrofibrosis rate.