Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology | 2019
PSMA-PET guided dose-escalated volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) for newly diagnosed lymph node positive prostate cancer: Efficacy and toxicity outcomes at two years.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES\nThere are no published reports of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) guided dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (DE-IMRT) in newly diagnosed lymph node (LN) positive prostate cancer. We report early toxicity and efficacy outcomes with this approach.\n\n\nMATERIALS/METHODS\nPatients with newly diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer were staged using PSMA PET, computed tomography (CT) and bone scans. Patients with LN positive-only metastases were offered curative therapy using 3\u202fmonths androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by DE-IMRT (using volumetric arc therapy), and 3\u202fyears adjuvant ADT. All patients had fiducial marker insertion, with privately insured patients having spacer hydrogel insertion. PET and prostate magnetic resonance imaging were fused with the planning CT. We aimed to deliver 81\u202fGy in 45 fractions (Fx) to the prostate and PET-positive LNs, and 60\u202fGy in 45Fx to bilateral elective pelvic LNs.\n\n\nRESULTS\nIn all, 46 patients were treated, with 83% Gleason 8-10, 67% T3/T4, median number of LNs 2 (range 1-6), and median PET-positive LN volume 1.14\u202fcc (range 0.15-4.14). LNs were outside of standard contouring guidelines in 37% of patients. The mean PET-positive LN clinical target volume dose ranged from 73.3 to 85.9\u202fGy (median 83.6\u202fGy). With 24\u202fmonths median follow-up, two year failure-free survival was 100%, and 2\u202fyear overall survival 95.7%. Acute grade 1 and 2 GI toxicity occurred in 48 and 11% of patients, and GU toxicity in 72 and 24%. Late grade 1, 2 and 3 GI toxicity occurred in 13, 2 and 0%, and GU toxicity 28, 13 and 4%. No toxicity was attributable to the high dose LN boost.\n\n\nCONCLUSIONS\nPSMA PET-guided DE-IMRT up to 81\u202fGy to the prostate and involved LNs, and long term ADT, is a promising approach for newly diagnosed LN positive prostate cancer. LN contouring guidelines require re-evaluation in the era of PSMA PET imaging.