The Science of the total environment | 2019
Effects of treated wastewater irrigation on the establishment of young grapevines.
Irrigation with treated wastewater could produce excessive accumulations within the plant and soil, negatively affecting the yield and production quality. In addition, the presence of biological and chemical contaminants could harm the agricultural environment, as well as the health of farmers and consumers. During this work, the suitability of secondary and tertiary treated wastewater for use in young grapevines was evaluated by studying the effect of the wastewater irrigation on the soil-plant system, crop yield, fruit quality and the presence of inorganic chemical contamination (salts, elements and heavy metals), organic chemical contamination (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and microbial contamination (E. coli, total coliforms). The results show that tertiary treated wastewater had positive impact on plant growth and yield while secondary treated wastewater had negative impact on fruit safety in comparison with tap water. Sodium levels in soils irrigated with treated wastewater increased at the end of the irrigation period while decreased during the wet season. The total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the soils ranged from 363\u202fμg/kg to 374\u202fμg/kg at the end of the experiment for all irrigation treatments applied. The use of tertiary treated wastewater was recommended for the irrigation of young grapevines as an alternative water source secured protection of environment, plant health and fruit quality.