Vaccine | 2019

Commensal gut microbiota can modulate adaptive immune responses in chickens vaccinated with whole inactivated avian influenza virus subtype H9N2.



Variations in the composition of commensal gut microbiota have been reported to be major contributors to differences in responses to vaccination among individuals. In chickens, there is limited information on the role of gut microbiota in responses to vaccination. The current study studied the role of gut microbiota in cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses to vaccination with a whole inactivated avian influenza virus, subtype H9N2. A total of 166 one-day-old specific pathogen free layer chickens (SPF) were randomly assigned to treatments, where a combination of antibiotic depletion, and probiotics (a combination of five Lactobacillus species) or fecal microbial transplant (FMT) reconstitution were used to study the dynamics of cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses to primary and secondary vaccinations at days 15 and 29 of age, respectively. Overall, at days 7 and 14 post primary vaccination (p.p.v.), administration of probiotics to non-depleted chickens resulted in significantly higher mean hemagglutination (HI) titre compared to antibiotic treated chickens. Furthermore, at day 21 p.p.v., chickens treated with probiotics or FMT post-antibiotic treatment showed a significantly higher mean HI titre compared to non-depleted chickens treated with probiotics. At day 7 p.p.v., a significantly higher virus specific IgM and IgG titres were observed in non-depleted chickens administered with probiotics compared to antibiotic depleted chickens, and a significantly higher IgG titre was observed in chickens treated with FMT following antibiotic treatment compared to only antibiotic treatment. Analysis of interferon gamma expression in splenocytes to assess cell-mediated immune responses showed a significantly lower expression in antibiotic-treated chickens compared to non-depleted chickens and FMT reconstituted chickens. Taken together, the current study suggests that shifts in the composition of gut microbiota of chickens may result in changes in cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses to vaccination against influenza viruses. Further studies will be needed to highlight the mechanisms involved in this modulation.

Volume None
Pages None
DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.046
Language English
Journal Vaccine

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