Journal of medicinal chemistry | 2021
LXR-Mediated Regulation of Marine-Derived Piericidins Aggravates High-Cholesterol Diet-Induced Cholesterol Metabolism Disorder in Mice.
Reported as two antirenal cell carcinoma (RCC) drug candidates, marine-derived compounds piericidin A (PA) and glucopiericidin A (GPA) exhibit hepatotoxicity in renal carcinoma xenograft mice. Proteomics and transcriptomics reveal the hepatotoxicity related with cholesterol disposition since RCC is characterized by cholesterol accumulation. PA/GPA aggravate hepatotoxicity in high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed mice while exhibiting no toxicity in chow diet-fed mice. High cholesterol accumulation in liver is liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily a member 1 (CYP7A1) depression and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activation. The farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR) is also depressed with a downregulated target gene OSTα. Different from PA directly combined with LXRα as an inhibitor, GPA exists as a prodrug in the liver and exerts toxic effects due to transformation into PA. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and docking results of 17 piericidins illustrate that glycosides exert no LXRα binding activity. A longer survival time of GPA-treated mice indicates that further exploration in anti-RCC drug research should focus on reducing glycosides transformed into PA and concentrating in the kidney tumor rather than the liver for lowering the risk of hepatotoxicity.