Nature Reviews Materials | 2019
Molecular magnetism: from chemical design to spin control in molecules, materials and devices
The field of molecular magnetism is rapidly evolving towards the use of magnetic molecules and molecule-based magnetic materials in physics-driven and nanotechnology-driven fields, in particular molecular spintronics, quantum technologies, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and 2D materials. In molecular spintronics, the goal is the development of a new generation of spintronic devices based on molecular materials or, in the longer term, on one or a few molecules. In the area of quantum technologies, the milestones reached in the design of molecular spin qubits with long quantum coherence times and in the implementation of quantum operations have raised expectations for the use of molecular spin qubits in quantum computation. MOFs and 2D materials are two classes of materials for which magnetism has been, until very recently, an elusive property; molecular materials with attractive properties and functionalities are now starting to be developed in both areas. In MOFs, single-molecule magnets and spin crossover complexes can be integrated into the nodes of the framework, within the pores or both, sometimes giving rise to smart magnetic materials or to hybrid materials exhibiting synergistic combinations of properties. 2D molecular-based magnets can provide a platform to study magnetism in the 2D limit and exhibit superior properties compared with their inorganic analogues in terms of chemical stability and tunability. This Review discusses the expansion of the field of molecular magnetism from the chemical design and physical study of single-molecule magnets and multifunctional magnetic materials towards physics- and nanotechnology-driven areas, in particular molecular spintronics, quantum technologies, metal–organic frameworks and 2D materials.