Substance Abuse | 2019
Home induction and outpatient treatment of kratom use disorder with buprenorphine-naloxone: A case report in a young adult
Abstract Background: The use of the natural product, kratom, has increased significantly in recent years. The active compounds in kratom have been shown to produce both opioid and stimulant-like effects. While kratom is marketed as a safe, non-addictive method to treat pain and opioid withdrawal, there have been reports demonstrating that kratom is physiologically addictive and linked to overdose deaths. A limited number of case-reports are available describing treatment of kratom use disorder in middle-aged adults, generally in the context of chronic pain and in inpatient settings. Our case is unique in that we describe outpatient treatment of kratom use disorder in a young adult with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in the absence of chronic pain. Case: A 20-year-old college student with ADHD presented to an office-based opioid agonist treatment clinic (OBOT) for treatment of kratom use disorder. He was unable to attend inpatient or residential substance use treatment due to work and school obligations. Additionally, he had stopped taking his prescribed stimulant due to cardiac side effects. The OBOT team successfully initiated buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP/NAL) sublingual films via home induction to treat his kratom use disorder. The patient is being monitored monthly with plans to slowly taper his BUP/NAL dose as tolerated. Discussion: We present a case of a young adult male with kratom use disorder, complicated by a diagnosis of ADHD, successfully treated with BUP/NAL via home induction. The patient is currently kratom-free, reports improved mood and sleep patterns since initiating BUP/NAL, and is able to once again tolerate his ADHD stimulant medication. Healthcare providers should be aware of the use of kratom and consider utilizing BUP/NAL to treat dependence to this botanical drug.