Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery | 2019
Associations Between Risk Factors and Overactive Bladder: A Meta-analysis
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of overactive bladder (OAB). Methods The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were retrieved through May 2016. Odds ratios (OR) or standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the associations between risk factors and OAB. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using &khgr;2 test based on the Q and I2 tests. Results A total of 28 articles were analyzed in our study. The results suggested that age and body mass index were significantly higher in OAB patients than in non-OAB controls (SMDs [95% CIs], 0.30 [0.19–0.41] and 0.39 [0.24–0.53]). A significant negative association was found between employment status and OAB (OR [95% CIs], 0.64 [0.46–0.90]). However, sex, educational level, parity, vaginal delivery, race, menopause, marital status, smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different in OAB and non-OAB control patients (ORs [95% CIs], 0.95 [0.59–1.55], 1.04 [0.82, 1.33], 0.98 [0.56–1.70], 1.66 [0.90–3.07], 0.98 [0.75–1.28], 1.84 [0.23–14.70], 0.97 [0.78–1.19], 0.91 [0.77–1.08], and 0.88 [0.71–1.09], respectively). In addition, the number of parities and vaginal deliveries in OAB patients also showed no significant differences compared with non-OAB control patients (SMDs [95% CI], 0.05 [−0.27 to 0.38] and −0.16 [0.40 to 0.09]). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that age and body mass index are associated with increased risks of OAB, whereas employment status is associated with a decreased risk of OAB. Further prospective studies with large sample sizes are needed to confirm this conclusion.