Journal of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing : official publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc | 2019
Increased risk of head injury in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
OBJECTIVE\nThe prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general pediatric population is 7%, whereas the prevalence in trauma is unknown. We hypothesized pediatric patients with ADHD would have a higher risk of involvement in a mechanism of injury (MOI) requiring constant attention to surroundings, such as a bicycle collision.\n\n\nMETHODS\nThe Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program (2014-2016) was queried for patients with ADHD. Patients, less than 16 years of age, with ADHD were compared to those without ADHD.\n\n\nRESULTS\nThe prevalence of ADHD was 2.5% (2,866). ADHD patients had higher risk for bicycle collision (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-2.15; p\u2009<\u2009.001). ADHD bicyclists were less likely to wear a helmet (9.4% vs. 18.2%, p\u2009=\u2009.003) and had a higher rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI; 55.6% vs. 39.7%, p\u2009<\u2009.001), compared to non-ADHD bicyclists.\n\n\nCONCLUSIONS\nPediatric ADHD patients have a 60% higher risk of being involved in a bicycle collision. ADHD patients that are involved in a bicycle collision are less likely to wear a helmet with a higher rate of TBI. Increased public awareness, education, and supervision may help reduce risk of bicycle collisions and TBI in this population.