Frontiers of hormone research | 2019
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, accounting for <1% of all cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and up to 15% in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Genomic alterations identified in PC are mostly represented by CDC73 gene mutations, codifying for a loss-of-function protein termed parafibromin. Whole exome sequencing identified mutations in other genes, such as mTOR, KMT2D, CDKN2C, THRAP3, PIK3CA, and EZH2 genes, CCND1 gene amplification. The diagnosis of PC is quite difficult due to the lack of reliable clinical diagnostic criteria, and in the majority of cases is made postoperatively at histological examination. The clinical manifestations of PC are primarily due to the excessive secretion of PTH by the tumor rather than spread to local or distant organs. En bloc resection of the parathyroid tumor represents the initial mainstay treatment of patients with PC. Multiple surgical procedures may be required, although surgical morbidity should be taken into account. A 5- and 10-year survival between 77-100 and 49-91%, respectively, has been reported. When the tumor is no more resectable, medical treatment of hypercalcemia has a pivotal role in the management of these patients.