Frontiers of hormone research | 2019
Primary hyperparathyroidism is among the most common causes of hypercalcemia. However, ingestion of medication, including hydrochlorathiazide, lithium, and foscarnet, excessive vitamin A ingestion, endocrinopathies such as hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and acromegaly, abnormal nutrient intake such as parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and milk-alkali syndrome, and prolonged immobilization have all been associated with hypercalcemia. The most common cause of nonparathyroid hypercalcemia is neoplasia. Hypercalcemia is generally due to the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) by a wide variety of nonmetastatic solid tumors, including squamous cell tumors but also hematologic tumors. PTHrP, although encoded by a distinct gene, shares amino acid sequence homology with PTH in the amino-terminal domain, which allows it to cross-react at a common G protein receptor, the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR1), resulting in similar skeletal effects and effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Increased PTHrP action with hypercalcemia may be seen in the benign disease Jansen s metaphyseal chondrodysplasia due to a gain-of-function mutation in PTHR1. Another humoral factor, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] may be produced by lymphomas, but also by benign granulomatous disorders and may also cause hypercalcemia when its metabolism is genetically impaired. Vitamin D intoxication may cause hypercalcemia due to overproduction of the metabolite, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, apparently in the absence of conversion to 1,25(OH)2D. Malignancies metastatic to bone or arising in bone (such as multiple myeloma) may produce a variety of growth factors and cytokines, in addition to PTHrP, which can contribute to tumor growth as well as osteolysis and hypercalcemia.