Frontiers of hormone research | 2019
Hypervolemic Hyponatremia in Heart Failure.
Heart failure (HF) represents the most common cause of hypervolemic hyponatremia in current clinical practice. The presence of hyponatremia has been independently associated with worse outcomes in this patient population. The pathogenesis of hyponatremia in HF involves complex neurohormonal and cardio-renal interactions, including an increase in non osmotic secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and insufficient tubular flow in the diluting segments of the nephron. The treatment of hyponatremia in HF involves decongestant therapy with diuretics, neurohormonal blockade and in certain occasions the use of AVP antagonists. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the pathophysiology, current evidence, and management recommendations for hyponatremia in patients with HF, with a specific focus on AVP homeostasis.