Frontiers of hormone research | 2019
Adverse Consequences of Overly-Rapid Correction of Hyponatremia.
A time-dependent loss of cell solute protects against lethal cerebral edema in hyponatremia. This adaptation, which makes survival possible when the serum sodium concentration is extremely low, also makes the brain vulnerable to injury if chronic (>48 hours) hyponatremia is corrected more rapidly than lost brain solutes can be recovered. Rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia results in programmed cell death of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and presents clinically with a delayed onset of neurological findings, known as the osmotic demyelination syndrome. This iatrogenic complication can be avoided by limiting correction of hyponatremia to <8 mEq/L per day.