Frontiers of hormone research | 2019
In clinical practice, several medications such as diuretics, psychotropic drugs, and anticonvulsants have been reported to be a frequent cause of hyponatremia. Drugs may cause hyponatremia either by affecting the homeostasis of sodium and water (e.g., diuretics) or by altering the water homeostasis as a consequence of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. On the contrary, drugs commonly prescribed in everyday clinical practice, including proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, hypoglycemic agents and, amiodarone, have been infrequently incriminated as causes of hyponatremia. Therefore, in the diagnostic approach of patients with low serum [Na+] levels, meticulous history taking and recording of pharmacotherapy is warranted to identify potentially culprit medications. Taking into account the adverse outcomes associated with even mild hyponatremia (i.e., impaired cognition, falls and fractures, mortality), recognition of drug-induced hyponatremia is of vital importance, while responsible agents should be discontinued and re-challenge should be avoided by informing the patient and involved caregivers.