The American journal of sports medicine | 2021
Determining the Ratio of Wedge Height to Degree of Correction for Anterior Tibial Closing Wedge Osteotomies for Excessive Posterior Tibial Slope.
BACKGROUND\nAnterior closing wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia may be considered in revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery for patients with excessive posterior tibial slope (PTS).\n\n\nPURPOSE\n(1) To determine the ratio of wedge thickness to degrees of correction for supratubercle (ST) versus transtubercle (TT) osteotomies for anterior closing wedge osteotomies and (2) to evaluate the accuracy of ST and TT osteotomies in achieving slope correction.\n\n\nSTUDY DESIGN\nControlled laboratory study.\n\n\nMETHODS\nThe computed tomography (CT) scans of 38 knees in 37 patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction were used to simulate both ST and TT osteotomies. A 10° wedge was simulated in all CT models. The height of the wedge along the anterior tibia was recorded for each of the 2 techniques. The ratio of wedge height to achieved degree of correction was calculated. ST and TT osteotomies were performed on 3-dimensional (3D)-printed tibias of the 12 patients from the study group with the greatest PTS, after the desired degree of correction was determined. Pre- and postosteotomy slopes were measured for each tibia, and the actual change in slope was compared with the intended slope correction.\n\n\nRESULTS\nAccording to CT measurements, the ratio of wedge height to degree of correction was 0.99 ± 0.07 mm/deg for the ST osteotomy and 0.83 ± 0.06 mm/deg for the TT osteotomy (P < .001). When these ratios were used to perform simulated osteotomies on the twelve 3D-printed tibias, the mean slope correction was within 1° to 2° of the intended slope correction, regardless of osteotomy location (ST or TT) or whether slope was measured on the medial or lateral plateau. The ST technique tended to undercorrect and the TT technique tended to overcorrect.\n\n\nCONCLUSION\nWhen anterior tibial closing wedge osteotomies were removed to correct excessive PTS, removing a wedge with a ratio of 1 mm of wedge height for every 1° of intended correction for an ST technique and a ratio of 0.8 mm to 1° for a TT technique resulted in overall average slope correction within 1° to 2° of the target.\n\n\nCLINICAL RELEVANCE\nThe calculated ratios will allow clinicians to more accurately correct PTS when performing anterior closing wedge tibial osteotomy.