Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research | 2021
Saliva pH and Flow Rate in Patients with Periodontal Disease and Associated Cardiovascular Disease
Background Periodontal disease, a frequent oral health problem, is connected with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess the unstimulated saliva flow rate and saliva pH as markers of the severity of periodontal disease in patients with cardiovascular disease. Material/Methods A cohort of 155 patients (78 men and 77 women, aged 30–92 years) was included, and a structured questionnaire obtained information about their health status, oral healthcare behaviors, and eating habits. An oral examination was performed to assess periodontal status and presence of dental calculus. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and salivary pH were measured. An oral hygienization was performed, and 3 months later, salivary flow rate and pH were reevaluated. Results A severe form of periodontal disease was found in 22.4% of patients. Disease severity was strongly correlated with low pH values (6.25 in stage IV periodontal disease), lower salivary flow rate (0.28 mL/min), smoking, poor oral hygiene habits and obesity, with no significant differences by sex. We observed a significant increase of pH (up to 6.30±0.17) in patients with severe periodontal disease (P=0.001) and salivary flow rate values (0.29±0.07 mL/min; P=0.014) 3 months after oral hygienization. There was a strong association between the severity of periodontal disease and presence of cardiovascular disease (P=0.001). Conclusions Our study suggests that the decrease of salivary flow rate and pH level might be associated with the severity of periodontal disease.