PloS one | 2021

Origin, genetic diversity and evolution of Andaman local duck, a native duck germplasm of an insular region of India.



Domestic ducks are of paramount importance as a cheap source of protein in rural India. Andaman local duck (ALD) is an indigenous avian genetic resource of Andaman and Nicobar islands (ANI) and is mainly distributed in Middle and Northern parts of these islands. Negligence has brought this breed on the edge of extinction necessitating immediate conservation efforts. Here, we report the genetic diversity, population structure and matrilineal genetic root of ALD. Partial mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed in 71 ALD samples and analysis revealed 19 polymorphic sites and 13 haplotypes. Estimated haplotype (Hd ± SD) and nucleotide diversity (π ± SD) were 0.881 ± 0.017 and 0.00897 ± 0.00078 respectively. The high genetic diversity of ALD indicates introgression of genetic material from other local duck breeds. In addition, it can be postulated that ALD bearing high genetic diversity has strong ability to adapt to environmental changes and can withstand impending climate change. Phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that ALD falls under Eurasian clade of mallard and ALD forms three clusters; one cluster is phylogenetically close to Southeast Asian countries, one close to Southern part of mainland India and the third one forms an independent cluster. Therefore, ALD might have migrated either from Southeast Asian countries which enjoy a close cultural bondage with ANI from time immemorial or from Southern part of India. The independent cluster may have evolved locally in these islands and natural selection pressure imposed by environmental conditions might be the driving force for evaluation of these duck haplotypes; which mimics Darwin s theory of natural selection. The results of the study will be beneficial for formulating future breeding programme and conservation strategy towards sustainable development of the duck breed.

Volume 16 2
Pages \n e0245138\n
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0245138
Language English
Journal PloS one

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