Aging (Albany NY) | 2021
Carbon nanotubes (CNT)-loaded ginsenosides Rb3 suppresses the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in triple-negative breast cancer
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as advanced nanotechnology with specific properties and structures, have presented practical drug delivery properties. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a component of puffed ginseng and demonstrates anti-cancer activities. To explore the effect of CNTs-loaded Rg3 (Rg3-CNT) on the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and the development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our data revealed that Rg3 inhibited the cell viability of TNBC cells, in which Rg3-CNT further enhanced this effect in the system. Similarly, the colony formation of TNBC cells was decreased by Rg3, while Rg3-CNT could reinforce its effect in the cells. Besides, the treatment of Rg3 induced apoptosis of TNBC cells, in which Rg3-CNT treatment further increased the phenotype in the cells. Remarkably, Rg3-CNT, but not Rg3, attenuated PD-L1 expression in TNBC cells. Rg3-CNT decreased the PD-L1 upregulation induced by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in breast cancer cells. Importantly, Rg3-CNT was able to reduce PD-1 expression in activated T cells. Specifically, Rg3-CNT reduced the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in a T cell/triple-negative TNBC cell co-culture system. Moreover, the levels of IFN-γ, interleukins-2 (IL-2), interleukins-9 (IL-9), interleukins-10 (IL-10), interleukins-22 (IL-22), and interleukins-23 (IL-23) were significantly stimulated in the activated T cells, while the treatment of Rg3-CNT could reverse these phenotypes in the cells. Rg3-CNT attenuated the TNBC cell growth in vivo. The Rg3-CNT improved the anti-cancer effect of Rg3 toward TNBC by inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which Rg3-CNT attenuates the development of TNBC. Rg3-CNT may be applied as the potential therapeutic strategy for immunotherapy of TNBC.