Archive | 2021
Connections of alien birds species with alien plants of parks and botanical gardens
Introduction. In urban conditions, alien species of biota have become an integral part of the cultural landscape. Today, an overall assessment of the influence of alien species on the functioning of ecosystems of their secondary range as is relevant. Such an assessment requires knowledge of the connections formed by alien species in the secondary habitat. The purpose of the study was to find the connections of alien bird species with alien plant species in the parks and botanical gardens of Kyiv. Methods. Assessment was carried out in 10 forest parks, 3 botanical gardens, and 14 urban parks. In parks and botanical gardens, there is a wide range of plants alien to Kyiv Region, in contrast to forest parks. The number and distribution of birds were determined using the method of transect counts. The total area under study was about 370 hectares. Principal Component Analysis of the characteristics of habitats on which the number of alien birds may depend has been carried out. In the research, α-diversity indices of bird communities; number of people (individuals/km); number of pets (individuals/km); park’s area (ha); part of the territory; under the trees (%); part of alien species on plants communities (%) were analyzed. Results. Parus major, Turdus merula, Erithacus rubecula, Fringilla сoelebs dominate in all communities. Columba palumbus, Ficedula albicollis, Turdus pilaris, Columba livia, Apus apus, Sturnus vulgaris, Passer domesticus sometimes dominate in bird communities in parks and botanical gardens. There are no alien species in forest parks. 4 alien species nest in parks and botanical gardens: Streptopelia decaocto, Dendrocopos syriacus, Phoenicurus ochruros, Serinus serinus (from the last century). Phylloscopus trochiloides was observed for the first time. Nesting of Ph. trochiloides was not confirmed. Alien birds are not evenly distributed (0–3 species). Nest density is low: S. decaocto 0.013±0.01–0.021±0.01, D. syriacus 0.031±0.01–0.043±0.04, Ph. ochruros 0–0.034±0.02, S. serinus 0.013±0.01–0.017±0.01. We assume that alien bird species is an element that replaces the species that were eliminated from the community. Their nesting in forest parks is an indicator of a disruption of the functioning of the forest ecosystem as a result of anthropogenic transformation of the forest. The presence of alien species of birds in modern parks and botanical gardens is normal. Their biotopes were created on the sites of destroyed landscapes and with using alien plant species. Conclusion. In parks and botanical gardens, a specific structure of the plant community has developed due to the introduction of alien plant species, with a tree height of 3–5 m. As a consequence, alien birds find nesting stations in communities of nesting birds, which were not occupied by native species due to the absence of many species of tree canopy nesters and ground nesters birds. Alien species of birds also get access to vacant food resources. Alien birds use vacant resources. It was found that the area of parks has the most profound positive impact on the number of species of alien birds (+0.517), as well as the ratio of alien birds (+0.227). Other important correlations observed were the following: the number of species of alien birds in the bird communities – a part of alien species in plant communities (+0.084), the ratio of alien birds – part of alien species in plant communities (+0.041). The strongest negative connection is as follows: the number of species of alien birds in the bird communities – the number of pets (-0.213), the ratio of alien birds – the number of pets (-0.384).