Cells | 2021
Bacillus subtilis Spore-Trained Dendritic Cells Enhance the Generation of Memory T Cells via ICAM1
Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of the immune system. The intestinal mucosa is the primary exposure and entry site of infectious organisms. For an effective and long-lasting safeguard, a robust immune memory system is required, especially by the mucosal immunity. It is well known that tissue-resident memory T cells (Trms) provide a first response against infections reencountered at mucosal tissues surfaces, where they accelerate pathogen clearance. However, their function in intestinal immunization remains to be investigated. Here, we report enhanced local mucosal and systemic immune responses through oral administration of H9N2 influenza whole inactivated virus (H9N2 WIV) plus Bacillus subtilis spores. Subsequently, H9N2 WIV plus spores led to the generation of CD103+ CD69+ Trms, which were independent of circulating T cells during the immune period. Meanwhile, we also found that Bacillus subtilis spores could stimulate Acrp30 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, spore-stimulated adipocyte supernatant also upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) in dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, the proportion of HA-tetramer+ cells was severely curtailed upon suppressed ICAM1 expression, which also depended on HA-loaded DCs. Taken together, our data demonstrated that spore-promoted H9N2 WIV induced an immune response by enhancing Trms populations, which were associated with the activation of ICAM1 in DCs.