Marine Drugs | 2021
Marine-Derived Compounds with Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Activities
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible and progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and, eventually, the ability to perform simple tasks. As the aging population continues to increase exponentially, AD has become a big concern for society. Therefore, neuroprotective compounds are in the spotlight, as a means to tackle this problem. On the other hand, since it is believed—in many cultures—that marine organisms in an individual diet cannot only improve brain functioning, but also slow down its dysfunction, many researchers have focused on identifying neuroprotective compounds from marine resources. The fact that the marine environment is a rich source of structurally unique and biologically and pharmacologically active compounds, with unprecedented mechanisms of action, marine macroorganisms, such as tunicates, corals, sponges, algae, as well as microorganisms, such as marine-derived bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, have been the target sources of these compounds. Therefore, this literature review summarizes and categorizes various classes of marine-derived compounds that are able to inhibit key enzymes involved in AD, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), β-secretase (BACE-1), and different kinases, together with the related pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The compounds discussed herein are emerging as promising anti-AD activities for further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations, to gain more insight of their mechanisms of action and for the development of potential anti-AD drug leads.