Pharmacognosy Research | 2019
Phytochemistry in medicinal species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
Background: The genus Solanum L. is the largest of the family Solanaceae; it has used in food, ornamentation, and medicinal. Objective: This work had as objective to perform the phytochemical screening secondary metabolites: saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones by means of colorimetric and precipitation analyzes of root bark, stem, leaf, and epicarp of the following species of Solanum genus: Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum. The species are found in areas of the Cerrado Biome of Northern Minas Gerais state for initial evaluation of the possibility of cultivation for medicinal use. Materials and Methods: The following qualitative tests were performed: Liebermann–Burchard reaction for steroids/triterpenoids; foam persistence test for saponins; Bertrand and Dragendorff reagents for alkaloids; reactions with lead neutral acetate at 10% and ferric chloride at 2% for tannins; reactions with ferric chloride at 2% and Shinoda reaction for flavonoids; reaction of Bornträeger and reaction with sodium hydroxide at 0.5% for anthraquinones. Results: Plants of the Solanum L. genus, occurring in Cerrado areas in the city of Montes Claros, have considerable amounts of secondary metabolites, varying between the different species and in different structures analyzed. Conclusion: It is important to continue the study evaluating whether in species from planting occurs production of the secondary metabolites identified in wild plants. Abbreviations Used: FAPEMIG: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, CNPq: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, BHCB: Herbarium of the Department of Botany, from Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais.