Cureus | 2021

Combined Phacoemulsification and Intravitreal Dexamethasone Is an Effective Option for High-Risk Diabetic Macula Oedema Patients



Objective Cataract surgery in diabetic patients carries an increased risk of post-operative macula oedema, particularly in those with a history of diabetic macula oedema (DMO) treatment or DMO at the time of surgery. We investigated whether simultaneous phacoemulsification with intravitreal Ozurdex® reduces the risk of developing new, or deteriorating current, DMO. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 79 consecutive ‘high-risk’ diabetic patients who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens insertion and intravitreal Ozurdex® implantation immediately subsequently. ‘High risk’ was defined as diabetic patients with prior treatment history for DMO or current DMO. Central macula thickness (CMT), best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were recorded pre-operatively, at two to four weeks and at three months post-operatively. A significant change in CMT was defined as a change of ≥0.1 LogOCT units. Results The mean age was 72.6 years; 52% were males. The mean pre-operative CMT was 365um. Thirty-seven per cent (37%) patients had prior DMO history that had resolved; 63% had confirmed DMO in surgery. Two to four weeks post-operatively, 82% of patients had stable CMT and 18% showed improvement. No patients deteriorated. Three months post-operatively, 48% of patients had stable CMT relative to pre-operative measurements, 38% improved, and 14% deteriorated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant differences in response with demographical or pathological factors, including diabetic retinopathy grade and treatment history. Conclusion Phacoemulsification surgery combined with Ozurdex® insertion at the end of the procedure is a highly effective strategy for protecting against the formation of new, or the deterioration of current DMO, in the highest risk diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery.

Volume 13
Pages None
DOI 10.7759/cureus.17603
Language English
Journal Cureus

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