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Diabetes Care | 1995
William H. Polonsky; Barbara J. Anderson; Patricia A Lohrer; Garry Welch; Alan M. Jacobson; Jennifer E Aponte; Carolyn E. Schwartz
OBJECTIVE To describe a new measure of psychosocial adjustment specific to diabetes, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID), and to present initial information on its reliability and validity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Before their routine clinic appointments, 451 female patients with type I and type II diabetes, all of whom required insulin, completed a self-report survey. Included in the survey was the PAID, a 20-item questionnaire in which each item represents a unique area of diabetes-related psychosocial distress. Each item is rated on a six-point Likert scale, reflecting the degree to which the item is perceived as currently problematic. A total scale score, hypothesized to reflect the overall level of diabetes-related emotional distress, is computed by summing the total item responses. To examine the concurrent validity of the PAID, the survey also included a series of standardized questionnaires assessing psychosocial functioning (general emotional distress, fear of hypoglycemia, and disordered eating), attitudes toward diabetes, and self-care behaviors. All subjects were assessed for HbA1, within 30 days of survey completion and again ∼ 1–2 years later. Finally, long-term diabetic complications were determined through chart review. RESULTS Internal reliability of the PAID was high, with good item-to-total correlations. Approximately 60% of the subject sample reported at least one serious diabetes-related concern. As expected, the PAID was positively associated with relevant psychosocial measures of distress, including general emotional distress, disordered eating, and fear of hypoglycemia, short- and long-term diabetic complications, and HbA1, and negatively associated with reported self-care behaviors. The PAID accounted for ∼ 9% of the variance in HbA1. Diabetes-related emotional distress, as measured by the PAID, was found to be a unique contributor to adherence to self-care behaviors after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, and general emotional distress. In addition, the PAID was associated with HbA1 even after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, general emotional distress, and adherence to self-care behaviors. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that the PAID, a brief, easy-to-administer instrument, may be valuable in assessing psychosocial adjustment to diabetes. In addition to high internal reliability, the consistent pattern of correlational findings indicates that the PAID is tapping into relevant aspects of emotional distress and that its particular feature, the measurement of diabetes-related emotional distress, is uniquely associated with diabetes-relevant outcomes. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that diabetes-related emotional distress, separate from general emotional distress, is an independent and major contributor to poor adherence. Given that the study was limited to female patients using insulin, further examination of the clinical usefulness of the PAID will need to focus on more heterogeneous samples.
Diabetes Care | 1997
Garry Welch; Alan M. Jacobson; William H. Polonsky
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, a new measure of emotional functioning in diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A battery of questionnaires, including the PAID, was completed by 256 volunteer diabetic outpatients. In our analyses, we examined the PAIDs internal structure and compared mean IDDM and NIDDM treatment group scores in regression analyses to explore its discriminant validity. We also evaluated concurrent validity from the correlations between the PAID and diabetes-specific measures of coping and health attitudes and HbA1c. RESULTS Principal component analyses identified a large emotional adjustment factor, supporting the use of the total score. Significant sizable correlations were found between the PAID and a range of selected health attitudinal measures. There were significant differences (with small-to-moderate effect sizes) in PAID scores between IDDM and NIDDM patients and between IDDM and NIDDM insulin- and tablet-treated subgroups; no differences were found between NIDDM insulin- and tablet-treated subgroups. CONCLUSIONS The study findings provided support for the construct validity of the PAID, including evidence for discriminant validity from its ability to detect differences between IDDM and NIDDM treatment groups expected to differ in the emotional impact of life with diabetes. Future studies should explore the PAIDs performance in nonspecialist treatment settings as well as its responsiveness to clinical change.
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2015
Abstr Act; James D. Douketis; Alex C. Spyropoulos; Scott Kaatz; Richard C. Becker; Joseph A. Caprini; Andrew Dunn; David Garcia; Alan M. Jacobson; Amir K. Jaffer; David F. Kong; Sam Schulman; Thomas L. Ortel
BACKGROUND It is uncertain whether bridging anticoagulation is necessary for patients with atrial fibrillation who need an interruption in warfarin treatment for an elective operation or other elective invasive procedure. We hypothesized that forgoing bridging anticoagulation would be noninferior to bridging with low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of perioperative arterial thromboembolism and would be superior to bridging with respect to major bleeding. METHODS We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which, after perioperative interruption of warfarin therapy, patients were randomly assigned to receive bridging anticoagulation therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (100 IU of dalteparin per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo administered subcutaneously twice daily, from 3 days before the procedure until 24 hours before the procedure and then for 5 to 10 days after the procedure. Warfarin treatment was stopped 5 days before the procedure and was resumed within 24 hours after the procedure. Follow-up of patients continued for 30 days after the procedure. The primary outcomes were arterial thromboembolism (stroke, systemic embolism, or transient ischemic attack) and major bleeding. RESULTS In total, 1884 patients were enrolled, with 950 assigned to receive no bridging therapy and 934 assigned to receive bridging therapy. The incidence of arterial thromboembolism was 0.4% in the no-bridging group and 0.3% in the bridging group (risk difference, 0.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 0.8; P=0.01 for noninferiority). The incidence of major bleeding was 1.3% in the no-bridging group and 3.2% in the bridging group (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.78; P=0.005 for superiority). CONCLUSIONS In patients with atrial fibrillation who had warfarin treatment interrupted for an elective operation or other elective invasive procedure, forgoing bridging anticoagulation was noninferior to perioperative bridging with low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of arterial thromboembolism and decreased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health; BRIDGE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00786474.).
General Hospital Psychiatry | 2010
Christina M. van der Feltz-Cornelis; Jasper Nuyen; Corinne Stoop; Juliana C.N. Chan; Alan M. Jacobson; Wayne Katon; Frank J. Snoek; Norman Sartorius
BACKGROUND Comorbid depression in diabetes is highly prevalent, negatively impacting well-being and diabetes control. How depression in diabetes is best treated is unknown. OBJECTIVE This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to establish the effectiveness of existing anti-depressant therapies in diabetes. METHODS DATA SOURCES PubMed, Psycinfo, Embase and Cochrane library. Study eligibility criteria, participants, interventions: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the outcome of treatment by psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or collaborative care of depression in persons with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. STUDY APPRAISAL risk of bias assessment; data extraction. Synthesis methods: data synthesis, random model meta analysis and publication bias analysis. RESULTS Meta analysis of 14 RCTs with a total of 1724 patients show that treatment is effective in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms: -0.512; 95% CI -0.633 to -0.390. The combined effect of all interventions on clinical impact is moderate, -0.370; 95% CI -0.470 to -0.271; it is large for psychotherapeutic interventions that are often combined with diabetes self management: -0.581; 95% CI -0.770 to -0.391, n=310 and moderate for pharmacological treatment: -0.467; 95% CI -0.665 to -0.270, n=281. Delivery of collaborative care, which provided a stepped care intervention with a choice of starting with psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, to a primary care population, yielded an effect size of -0.292; 95% CI -0.429 to -0.155, n=1133; indicating the effect size that can be attained on a population scale. Pharmacotherapy and collaborative care aimed at and succeeded in the reduction of depressive symptoms but, apart from sertraline, had no effect on glycemic control. LIMITATIONS amongst others, the number of RCTs is small. CONCLUSION The treatment of depression in people with diabetes is a necessary step, but improvement of the general medical condition including glycemic control is likely to require simultaneous attention to both conditions. Further research is needed.
Diabetes Care | 1994
William H. Polonsky; Barbara J. Anderson; Patricia A Lohrer; Jennifer E Aponte; Alan M. Jacobson; Cole Cf
OBJECTIVE To describe the extent of intentional insulin omission in an outpatient population of women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and examine its relationship to disordered eating, attitudes toward diabetes, other psychosocial factors, long-term complications, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Before their routinely scheduled clinic appointments, female IDDM patients who were 13–60 years of age completed a self-report survey (final n = 341). The survey included standardized questionnaires assessing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, psychological functioning (general distress, diabetes-specific distress, and hypoglycemic fear), attitudes toward diabetes, and self-care behaviors. All subjects were assessed for glycosylated hemoglobin within 30 days of survey completion. Long-term complications were determined through chart review. RESULTS Approximately 31% of the subject sample, representing women of all ages, reported intentional insulin omission, but only 8.8% reported frequent omission. Compared with non-omitters, omitters reported more disordered eating, greater psychological distress (general and diabetes-specific), more hypoglycemic fear, poorer regimen adherence, and greater fears concerning improved diabetes management (which may lead to weight gain). Omitters evidenced poorer glycemic control, more diabetes-related hospitalizations, and higher rates of retinopathy and neuropathy. Multivariate examination revealed only two variables that independently predicted omission: diabetes-specific distress and fear of improved glycemic control (“because I will gain weight”). Of the omitters, approximately half reported omitting insulin for weight-management purposes (weight-related omitters). These subjects evidenced significantly greater psychological distress, poorer regimen adherence (including more frequent omission), poorer glycemic control, and higher rates of complications than did non-weight-related omitters as well as non-omitters. Non-weight-related omitters tended to fall between weight-related omitters and non-omitters on most measures of psychological functioning, adherence, and glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that insulin omission is common, that it is not limited to younger women, and that the medical consequences of omission, especially frequent omission, may be severe. Although a strong association between omission and disordered eating was observed, these data suggest that this link may be complicated by important diabetes-specific factors. Patients preoccupied with eating and weight concerns may also become emotionally overwhelmed by diabetes and/or fearful of normoglycemia (and the associated weight-related consequences), thus reinforcing the desire to omit insulin and maintain elevated blood glucose levels.
Diabetes | 2006
Patricia A. Cleary; Trevor J. Orchard; Saul Genuth; Nathan D. Wong; Robert Detrano; Jye Yu C Backlund; Bernard Zinman; Alan M. Jacobson; Wanjie Sun; John M. Lachin; David M. Nathan
The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, an observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) type 1 diabetes cohort, measured coronary artery calcification (CAC), an index of atherosclerosis, with computed tomography (CT) in 1,205 EDIC patients at ∼7–9 years after the end of the DCCT. We examined the influence of the 6.5 years of prior conventional versus intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT, as well as the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, on CAC. The prevalences of CAC >0 and >200 Agatston units were 31.0 and 8.5%, respectively. Compared with the conventional treatment group, the intensive group had significantly lower geometric mean CAC scores and a lower prevalence of CAC >0 in the primary retinopathy prevention cohort, but not in the secondary intervention cohort, and a lower prevalence of CAC >200 in the combined cohorts. Waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, before or at the time of CT, were significantly associated with CAC in univariate and multivariate analyses. CAC was associated with mean HbA1c (A1C) levels before enrollment, during the DCCT, and during the EDIC study. Prior intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT was associated with less atherosclerosis, largely because of reduced levels of A1C during the DCCT.
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2010
David B. Matchar; Alan M. Jacobson; Rowena J Dolor; Robert Edson; Lauren Uyeda; Ciaran S. Phibbs; Julia E. Vertrees; Mei-Chiung Shih; Mark Holodniy; Philip W. Lavori
BACKGROUND Warfarin anticoagulation reduces thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves, but effective management is complex, and the international normalized ratio (INR) is often outside the target range. As compared with venous plasma testing, point-of-care INR measuring devices allow greater testing frequency and patient involvement and may improve clinical outcomes. METHODS We randomly assigned 2922 patients who were taking warfarin because of mechanical heart valves or atrial fibrillation and who were competent in the use of point-of-care INR devices to either weekly self-testing at home or monthly high-quality testing in a clinic. The primary end point was the time to a first major event (stroke, major bleeding episode, or death). RESULTS The patients were followed for 2.0 to 4.75 years, for a total of 8730 patient-years of follow-up. The time to the first primary event was not significantly longer in the self-testing group than in the clinic-testing group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P=0.14). The two groups had similar rates of clinical outcomes except that the self-testing group reported more minor bleeding episodes. Over the entire follow-up period, the self-testing group had a small but significant improvement in the percentage of time during which the INR was within the target range (absolute difference between groups, 3.8 percentage points; P<0.001). At 2 years of follow-up, the self-testing group also had a small but significant improvement in patient satisfaction with anticoagulation therapy (P=0.002) and quality of life (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS As compared with monthly high-quality clinic testing, weekly self-testing did not delay the time to a first stroke, major bleeding episode, or death to the extent suggested by prior studies. These results do not support the superiority of self-testing over clinic testing in reducing the risk of stroke, major bleeding episode, and death among patients taking warfarin therapy. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032591.).
Psychosomatic Medicine | 1994
Alan M. Jacobson; Stuart T. Hauser; Philip W. Lavori; John B. Willett; Cole Cf; Joseph I. Wolfsdorf; Dumont Rh; Donald Wertlieb
&NA; An onset cohort of children and adolescents with insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and their parents were studied. Aspects of family environment were evaluated at study inception, and their influence on the initial level of, and change in, glycemic control over 4 years was examined. Family measures of expressiveness, cohesiveness, and conflict were linked to differences in the longitudinal pattern of glycemic control. In particular, the encouragement to act openly and express feelings directly (expressiveness) seemed to ameliorate deterioration of glycemic control over time in both boys and girls. Boys were especially sensitive to variations in family cohesiveness and conflict; those from more cohesive and less conflicted families showed less deterioration in glycemic control. This study demonstrated the important influence of family psychosocial factors present at diabetes onset on glycemic control in children and adolescents over the first 4 years of IDDM.
Quality of Life Research | 1997
Alan M. Jacobson; M. de Groot; Jacqueline A. Samson
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychiatric symptoms and illness status on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of outpatients with Type I and Type II diabetes mellitus. Using a two-stage design, all patients were assessed by two measures of quality of life (Diabetes Quality of Life Measure; Medical Outcome Study Health Survey) and a psychiatric symptoms checklist (SCL-90-R). Patients scoring 63 or greater on the global severity index of the SCL-90-R and 30% below this cutoff were then evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID). Quality of life in both Type I and Type II diabetes was influenced by the level of current psychiatric symptoms and presence of co-morbid psychiatric disorder, after controlling for number of diabetic complications (e.g. effect of lifetime psychiatric illness on diabetes-related HRQOL; F=46.8; df=3, 135; p < 0.005). These effects were found consistently across specific domains. Both recent and past psychiatric disorders influenced HRQOL. Separate analyses comparing patients with and without depression showed similar effects. No interaction effects between diabetes type, number of complications, and psychiatric status were found in analyses. Finally, increased severity of psychiatric symptoms was correlated with decreased HRQOL in patients without current, recent, or past psychiatric diagnosis. This study shows the consistent, independent contribution of psychiatric symptoms and illness to the HRQOL of patients with a co-existing medical illness. Thus, psychiatric interventions addressing common conditions, such as depression, could improve the HRQOL of patients without changing medical status.
Diabetes | 2012
Gail Musen; Alan M. Jacobson; Nicolas R. Bolo; Donald C. Simonson; Martha Elizabeth Shenton; Veronica L. Flores; Wouter S. Hoogenboom
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Populations at risk for AD show altered brain activity in the default mode network (DMN) before cognitive dysfunction. We evaluated this brain pattern in T2DM patients. We compared T2DM patients (n = 10, age = 56 ± 2.2 years, fasting plasma glucose [FPG] = 8.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L, HbA1c = 7.5 ± 0.54%) with nondiabetic age-matched control subjects (n = 11, age = 54 ± 1.8 years, FPG = 4.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate functional connectivity strength among DMN regions. We also evaluated hippocampal volume, cognition, and insulin sensitivity by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Control subjects showed stronger correlations versus T2DM patients in the DMN between the seed (posterior cingulate) and bilateral middle temporal gyrus (β = 0.67 vs. 0.43), the right inferior and left medial frontal gyri (β = 0.75 vs. 0.54), and the left thalamus (β = 0.59 vs. 0.37), respectively, with no group differences in cognition or hippocampal size. In T2DM patients, HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. T2DM patients showed reduced functional connectivity in the DMN compared with control subjects, which was associated with insulin resistance in selected brain regions, but there were no group effects of brain structure or cognition.