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The Lancet | 2003
Philip A. Poole-Wilson; Karl Swedberg; John G.F. Cleland; Andrea Di Lenarda; Peter Hanrath; Michel Komajda; Jacobus Lubsen; Beatrix Lutiger; Marco Metra; Willem J. Remme; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Armin Scherhag; Allan M. Skene
BACKGROUND Beta blockers reduce mortality in patients who have chronic heart failure, systolic dysfunction, and are on background treatment with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We aimed to compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcome. METHODS In a multicentre, double-blind, and randomised parallel group trial, we assigned 1511 patients with chronic heart failure to treatment with carvedilol (target dose 25 mg twice daily) and 1518 to metoprolol (metoprolol tartrate, target dose 50 mg twice daily). Patients were required to have chronic heart failure (NYHA II-IV), previous admission for a cardiovascular reason, an ejection fraction of less than 0.35, and to have been treated optimally with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors unless not tolerated. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or all-cause admission. Analysis was done by intention to treat. FINDINGS The mean study duration was 58 months (SD 6). The mean ejection fraction was 0.26 (0.07) and the mean age 62 years (11). The all-cause mortality was 34% (512 of 1511) for carvedilol and 40% (600 of 1518) for metoprolol (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.74-0.93], p=0.0017). The reduction of all-cause mortality was consistent across predefined subgroups. The composite endpoint of mortality or all-cause admission occurred in 1116 (74%) of 1511 on carvedilol and in 1160 (76%) of 1518 on metoprolol (0.94 [0.86-1.02], p=0.122). Incidence of side-effects and drug withdrawals did not differ by much between the two study groups. INTERPRETATION Our results suggest that carvedilol extends survival compared with metoprolol.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 1999
Luisa Mestroni; Chiara Rocco; Dario Gregori; Gianfranco Sinagra; Andrea Di Lenarda; Snjezana Miocic; Matteo Vatta; Bruno Pinamonti; Francesco Muntoni; Alida L.P. Caforio; William J. McKenna; Arturo Falaschi; Mauro Giacca; Fulvio Camerini
OBJECTIVES This study was performed to evaluate the characteristics, mode of inheritance and etiology of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC). BACKGROUND A genetic form of disease transmission has been identified in a relevant proportion of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Variable clinical characteristics and patterns of inheritance, and an increased frequency of cardiac antibodies have been reported. An analysis of FDC may improve the understanding of the disease and the management of patients. METHODS Of 350 consecutive patients with idiopathic DCM, 281 relatives from 60 families were examined. Family studies included clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and blood sampling. Of the 60 DCM index patients examined, 39 were attributable to FDC and 21 were due to sporadic DCM. Clinical features, histology, mode of inheritance and autoimmune serology were examined, molecular genetic studies were undertaken and the difference between familial and sporadic forms was analyzed. RESULTS Only a younger age (p = 0.0005) and a higher ejection fraction (p = 0.03) could clinically distinguish FDC patients from those with sporadic DCM. However, a number of distinct subtypes of FDC were identified: 1) autosomal dominant, the most frequent form (56%); 2) autosomal recessive (16%), characterized by worse prognosis; 3) X-linked FDC (10%), with different mutations of the dystrophin gene; 4) a novel form of autosomal dominant DCM with subclinical skeletal muscle disease (7.7%); 5) FDC with conduction defects (2.6%), and 6) rare unclassifiable forms (7.7%). The forms with skeletal muscle involvement were characterized by a restrictive filling pattern; the forms with isolated cardiomyopathy had an increased frequency of organ-specific cardiac autoantibodies. Histologic signs of myocarditis were frequent and nonspecific. CONCLUSIONS Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is frequent, cannot be predicted on a clinical or morphologic basis and requires family screening for identification. The phenotypic heterogeneity, different patterns of transmission, different frequencies of cardiac autoantibodies and the initial molecular genetic data indicate that multiple genes and pathogenetic mechanisms can lead to FDC.OBJECTIVES This study was performed to evaluate the characteristics, mode of inheritance and etiology of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC). BACKGROUND A genetic form of disease transmission has been identified in a relevant proportion of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Variable clinical characteristics and patterns of inheritance, and an increased frequency of cardiac antibodies have been reported. An analysis of FDC may improve the understanding of the disease and the management of patients. METHODS Of 350 consecutive patients with idiopathic DCM, 281 relatives from 60 families were examined. Family studies included clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and blood sampling. Of the 60 DCM index patients examined, 39 were attributable to FDC and 21 were due to sporadic DCM. Clinical features, histology, mode of inheritance and autoimmune serology were examined, molecular genetic studies were undertaken and the difference between familial and sporadic forms was analyzed. RESULTS Only a younger age (p = 0.0005) and a higher ejection fraction (p = 0.03) could clinically distinguish FDC patients from those with sporadic DCM. However, a number of distinct subtypes of FDC were identified: 1) autosomal dominant, the most frequent form (56%); 2) autosomal recessive (16%), characterized by worse prognosis; 3) X-linked FDC (10%), with different mutations of the dystrophin gene; 4) a novel form of autosomal dominant DCM with subclinical skeletal muscle disease (7.7%); 5) FDC with conduction defects (2.6%), and 6) rare unclassifiable forms (7.7%). The forms with skeletal muscle involvement were characterized by a restrictive filling pattern; the forms with isolated cardiomyopathy had an increased frequency of organ-specific cardiac autoantibodies. Histologic signs of myocarditis were frequent and nonspecific. CONCLUSIONS Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is frequent, cannot be predicted on a clinical or morphologic basis and requires family screening for identification. The phenotypic heterogeneity, different patterns of transmission, different frequencies of cardiac autoantibodies and the initial molecular genetic data indicate that multiple genes and pathogenetic mechanisms can lead to FDC.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 1997
Bruno Pinamonti; Massimo Zecchin; Andrea Di Lenarda; Dario Gregori; Gianfranco Sinagra; Fulvio Camerini
OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the prognostic implications of the evolution of restrictive left ventricular filling pattern (RFP) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND Previous work has demonstrated that a RFP in DCM is associated with a poor prognosis. Few data are available on the prognostic implications of the evolution of this pattern. METHODS The evolution of left ventricular filling was studied by Doppler echocardiography in 110 patients with DCM. According to the left ventricular filling pattern at presentation and after 3 months of treatment, the patients were classified into three groups: Group 1A (n = 24) had persistent restrictive filling; Group 1B (n = 29) had reversible restrictive filling; and Group 2 (n = 57) had nonrestrictive filling. RESULTS During follow-up (41 +/- 20 months), mortality plus heart transplantations was significantly higher in Group 1A than in Groups 1B and 2 (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the model incorporating E wave deceleration time at 3 months was more powerful at predicting mortality with respect to this variable at baseline (p = 0.0039). Clinical improvement at 1 and 2 years was significantly more frequent in Groups 1B and 2 than in Group 1A (p < 0.0001 at 2 years). CONCLUSIONS In patients with DCM, the persistence of restrictive filling at 3 months is associated with a high mortality and transplantation rate. The patients with reversible restrictive filling have a high probability of improvement and excellent survival. Doppler echocardiographic reevaluation of these patients after 3 months of therapy gives additional prognostic information with respect to the initial study.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2011
Marco Merlo; Stylianos A. Pyxaras; Bruno Pinamonti; Andrea Di Lenarda; Gianfranco Sinagra
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic role of left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). BACKGROUND Tailored medical therapy can lead to LVRR in IDCM. The prevalence and prognostic impact of LVRR remain unclear. METHODS We consecutively enrolled 361 IDCM patients. LVRR was defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction increase of ≥10 U or a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≥50% and a decrease in indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of ≥10% or indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of ≥33 mm/m(2) at 24 months (range 9 to 36 months). Follow-up echocardiographic data were available for 242 patients (67%), 34 (9%) died/underwent heart transplantation (HTx) before re-evaluation, and 85 (24%) did not have a complete re-evaluation. After re-evaluation, the surviving patients were followed for 110 ± 53 months; there were 55 deaths (23%) and 32 HTx (13%). RESULTS LVRR was found in 89 of 242 patients (37%). Baseline predictors of LVRR were higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.047) and the absence of left bundle branch block (p = 0.009). When added to a prognostic baseline model including male sex, heart failure duration, New York Heart Association functional classes III to IV, LVEF, significant mitral regurgitation, and beta-blockers, LVRR, New York Heart Association functional classes III to IV, and significant mitral regurgitation after 24 months emerged as independent predictors of death/HTx and heart failure death/HTx. The model including follow-up variables showed additional prognostic power with respect to baseline model (for death/HTx, area under the curve: 0.80 vs. 0.70, respectively, p = 0.004). Furthermore, only LVRR was significantly associated with sudden death/major ventricular arrhythmia in the long-term. CONCLUSIONS LVRR characterized approximately one-third of IDCM patients surviving 2 years while receiving optimal medical therapy and allowed a more accurate long-term prognostic stratification of the disease.
American Heart Journal | 1992
Bruno Pinamonti; Gianfranco Sinagra; Alessandro Salvi; Andrea Di Lenarda; Tullio Morgera; Furio Silvestri; Rossana Bussani; Fulvio Camerini
Right ventricular dysplasia, a heart muscle disease of unknown cause, anatomically characterized by variable replacement of myocardial muscle with adipose or fibroadipose tissue, is usually considered a selective disorder of the right ventricle. However, concomitant left ventricular involvement has been noted in a few cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of left ventricular involvement in right ventricular dysplasia, as well as possible progression of the disease. Thirty-nine patients with right ventricular dysplasia were studied by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography; 28 of them also underwent cardiac catheterization, and in 25 endomyocardial biopsy was performed. On first examination the left ventricle was normal in 25 patients, whereas in the remaining 14 right ventricular abnormalities were associated with left ventricular involvement, characterized by asynergic areas (12 patients) or diffuse mild hypokinesis (two patients). During follow-up (27 patients, 84.1 +/- 66.1 months) 10 patients showed worsening of right ventricular function; in nine the appearance or worsening of left ventricular abnormalities was observed. Five patients died (four in congestive heart failure and one suddenly). Results of postmortem examination (available in two patients) showed atrophy of myocells and a massive fatty and fibrous infiltration of the right ventricular wall, associated with degenerative changes and fibrosis of the left ventricle. In conclusion, right ventricular dysplasia may be associated with left ventricular involvement and the disorder appears to be progressive in some instances.
Circulation | 2005
Elisa Carniel; Matthew R.G. Taylor; Gianfranco Sinagra; Andrea Di Lenarda; Lisa Ku; Pamela R. Fain; Mark M. Boucek; Jean Cavanaugh; Snjezana Miocic; Dobromir Slavov; Sharon Graw; Jennie Feiger; Xiao Zhong Zhu; Dmi Dao; Debra Ferguson; Michael R. Bristow; Luisa Mestroni
Background—Mutations in the β-myosin heavy-chain (βMyHC) gene cause hypertrophic (HCM) and dilated (DCM) forms of cardiomyopathy. In failing human hearts, downregulation of αMyHC mRNA or protein has been correlated with systolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that mutations in αMyHC could also lead to pleiotropic cardiac phenotypes, including HCM and DCM. Methods and Results—A cohort of 434 subjects, 374 (134 affected, 214 unaffected, 26 unknown) belonging to 69 DCM families and 60 (29 affected, 30 unaffected, 1 unknown) in 21 HCM families, was screened for αMyHC gene (MYH6) mutations. Three heterozygous MYH6 missense mutations were identified in DCM probands (P830L, A1004S, and E1457K; 4.3% of probands). A Q1065H mutation was detected in 1 of 21 HCM probands and was absent in 2 unaffected offspring. All MYH6 mutations were distributed in highly conserved residues, were predicted to change the structure or chemical bonds of αMyHC, and were absent in at least 300 control chromosomes from an ethnically similar population. The DCM carrier phenotype was characterized by late onset, whereas the HCM phenotype was characterized by progression toward dilation, left ventricular dysfunction, and refractory heart failure. Conclusions—This study suggests that mutations in MYH6 may cause a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from DCM to HCM.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 1999
Andrea Di Lenarda; G. Sabbadini; Luca Salvatore; Gianfranco Sinagra; Luisa Mestroni; Bruno Pinamonti; Dario Gregori; Fulvio Ciani; Aureo Muzzi; Silvio Klugmann; Fulvio Camerini
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to analyze whether long-term treatment with the nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent carvedilol may have beneficial effects in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), who are poor responders in terms of left ventricular (LV) function and exercise tolerance to chronic treatment with the selective beta-blocker metoprolol. BACKGROUND Although metoprolol has been proven to be beneficial in the majority of patients with heart failure, a subset of the remaining patients shows long-term survival without satisfactory clinical improvement. METHODS Thirty consecutive DCM patients with persistent LV dysfunction (ejection fraction #40%) and reduced exercise tolerance (peak oxygen consumption ,25 ml/kg/min) despite chronic (.1 year) tailored treatment with metoprolol and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were enrolled in a 12-month, open-label, parallel trial and were randomized either to continue on metoprolol (n 5 16, mean dosage 142 6 44 mg/day) or to cross over to maximum tolerated dosage of carvedilol (n 5 14, mean dosage 74 6 23 mg/day). RESULTS At 12 months, patients on carvedilol, compared with those continuing on metoprolol, showed a decrease in LV dimensions (end-diastolic volume 28 6 7 vs. 17 6 6 ml/m 2 ,p 5 0.053; end-systolic volume 27 6 5 vs. 16 6 4 ml/m 2 ,p 5 0.047), an improvement in LV ejection fraction (17 6 3% vs. 21 6 2%, p 5 0.045), a reduction in ventricular ectopic beats (212 6 9 vs. 162 6 50 n/h, p 5 0.05) and couplets (20.5 6 0.4 vs. 11.5 6 0.6 n/h, p 5 0.048), no significant benefit on symptoms and quality of life and a negative effect on peak oxygen consumption (20.6 6 0.6 vs. 11.3 6 0.5 ml/kg/min, p 5 0.03). CONCLUSIONS In DCM patients who were poor responders to chronic metoprolol, carvedilol treatment was associated with favorable effects on LV systolic function and remodeling as well as on ventricular arrhythmias, whereas it had a negative effect on peak oxygen consumption. (J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:1926 ‐34)
Heart | 2007
Christian Torp-Pedersen; Marco Metra; Andrew Charlesworth; Phillip Spark; Mary Ann Lukas; Philip A. Poole-Wilson; Karl Swedberg; John G.F. Cleland; Andrea Di Lenarda; Willem J. Remme; Armin Scherhag
Background: β Blocker treatment may worsen glucose metabolism. Objective: To study the development of new onset diabetes in a large cohort of patients with heart failure treated with either metoprolol or carvedilol. Design: Prospective and retrospective analysis of a controlled clinical trial. Setting: Multinational multicentre study. Patients: 3029 patients with chronic heart failure. Interventions: Randomly assigned treatment with carvedilol (n = 1511, target dose 50 mg daily) or metoprolol tartrate (n = 1518, target dose 100 mg daily). Results: Diabetic events (diabetic coma, peripheral gangrene, diabetic foot, decreased glucose tolerance or hyperglycaemia) and new onset diabetes (clinical diagnosis, repeated high random glucose level or glucose lowering drugs) were assessed in 2298 patients without diabetes at baseline. Diabetic events occurred in 122/1151 (10.6%) patients in the carvedilol group and 149/1147 (13.0%) patients in the metoprolol group (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.99; p = 0.039). New onset diabetes was diagnosed in 119/1151 (10.3%) v 145/1147 (12.6%) cases in the carvedilol and metoprolol treatment groups (HR = 0.78, CI 0.61 to 0.997; p = 0.048), respectively. Patients with diabetes at baseline had an increased mortality compared with non-diabetic subjects (45.3% v 33.9%; HR = 1.45, CI 1.28 to 1.65). Both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects at baseline had a similar reduction in mortality with carvedilol compared with metoprolol (RR = 0.85; CI 0.69 to 1.06 and RR = 0.82; CI 0.71 to 0.94, respectively). Conclusion: A high prevalence and incidence of diabetes is found in patients with heart failure over a course of 5 years. New onset diabetes is more likely to occur during treatment with metoprolol than during treatment with carvedilol.
Circulation | 2007
Matthew R.G. Taylor; Dobromir Slavov; Lisa Ku; Andrea Di Lenarda; Gianfranco Sinagra; Elisa Carniel; Kurt Haubold; Mark M. Boucek; Debra Ferguson; Sharon Graw; Xiao Zhu; Jean Cavanaugh; Carmen C. Sucharov; Carlin S. Long; Michael R. Bristow; Philip W. Lavori; Luisa Mestroni
Background— Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy (DRM) is a cardiac and skeletal muscle disease caused by mutations in the desmin (DES) gene. Mutations in the central 2B domain of DES cause skeletal muscle disease that typically precedes cardiac involvement. However, the prevalence of DES mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) without skeletal muscle disease is not known. Methods and Results— Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography was used to screen DES for mutations in 116 DCM families from the Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Registry and in 309 subjects with DCM from the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST). DES mutations were transfected into SW13 and human smooth muscle cells and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, and the effects on cytoskeletal desmin network architecture were analyzed with confocal microscopy. Five novel missense DES mutations, including the first localized to the highly conserved 1A domain, were detected in 6 subjects (1.4%). Transfection of DES mutations in the 2B domain severely disrupted the fine intracytoplasmic staining of desmin, causing clumping of the desmin protein. A tail domain mutation (Val459Ile) showed milder effects on desmin cytoplasmic network formation and appears to be a low-penetrant mutation restricted to black subjects. Conclusions— The prevalence of DES mutations in DCM is between 1% and 2%, and mutations in the 1A helical domain, as well as the 2B rod domain, are capable of causing a DCM phenotype. The lack of severe disruption of cytoskeletal desmin network formation seen with mutations in the 1A and tail domains suggests that dysfunction of seemingly intact desmin networks is sufficient to cause DCM.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2011
William P. McNair; Gianfranco Sinagra; Matthew R.G. Taylor; Andrea Di Lenarda; Debra A. Ferguson; Ernesto Salcedo; Dobromir Slavov; Xiao Zhu; John H. Caldwell; Luisa Mestroni
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to discern the role of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium ion channel SCN5A in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND Dilated cardiomyopathy associates with mutations in the SCN5A gene, but the frequency, phenotype, and causative nature of these associations remain the focus of ongoing investigation. METHODS Since 1991, DCM probands and family members have been enrolled in the Familial Cardiomyopathy Registry and extensively evaluated by clinical phenotype. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid samples from 338 individuals among 289 DCM families were obtained and screened for SCN5A mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequence analysis. RESULTS We identified 5 missense SCN5A mutations among our DCM families, including novel mutations E446K, F1520L, and V1279I, as well as previously reported mutations D1275N and R222Q. Of 15 SCN5A mutation carriers in our study, 14 (93%) manifested arrhythmia: supraventricular arrhythmia (13 of 15), including sick sinus syndrome (5 of 15) and atrial fibrillation (9 of 15), ventricular tachycardia (5 of 15), and conduction disease (9 of 15). CONCLUSIONS Mutations in SCN5A were detected in 1.7% of DCM families. Two-thirds (6 of 9) of all reported DCM mutations in SCN5A localize to the highly conserved homologous S3 and S4 transmembrane segments, suggesting a shared mechanism of disruption of the voltage-sensing mechanism of this channel leading to DCM. Not surprisingly, SCN5A mutation carriers show a strong arrhythmic pattern that has clinical and diagnostic implications.