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Dive into the research topics where Antonio C. Bianco is active.


Featured researches published by Antonio C. Bianco.

Nature | 2006

Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation

Mitsuhiro Watanabe; Sander M. Houten; Chikage Mataki; Marcelo A. Christoffolete; Brian W. Kim; Hiroyuki Sato; Nadia Messaddeq; John W. Harney; Osamu Ezaki; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Kristina Schoonjans; Antonio C. Bianco; Johan Auwerx

While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent years an important role for BAs as signalling molecules has emerged. BAs activate mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, are ligands for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) TGR5 and activate nuclear hormone receptors such as farnesoid X receptor α (FXR-α; NR1H4). FXR-α regulates the enterohepatic recycling and biosynthesis of BAs by controlling the expression of genes such as the short heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) that inhibits the activity of other nuclear receptors. The FXR-α-mediated SHP induction also underlies the downregulation of the hepatic fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis and very-low-density lipoprotein production mediated by sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c. This indicates that BAs might be able to function beyond the control of BA homeostasis as general metabolic integrators. Here we show that the administration of BAs to mice increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, preventing obesity and resistance to insulin. This novel metabolic effect of BAs is critically dependent on induction of the cyclic-AMP-dependent thyroid hormone activating enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) because it is lost in D2-/- mice. Treatment of brown adipocytes and human skeletal myocytes with BA increases D2 activity and oxygen consumption. These effects are independent of FXR-α, and instead are mediated by increased cAMP production that stems from the binding of BAs with the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. In both rodents and humans, the most thermogenically important tissues are specifically targeted by this mechanism because they coexpress D2 and TGR5. The BA–TGR5–cAMP–D2 signalling pathway is therefore a crucial mechanism for fine-tuning energy homeostasis that can be targeted to improve metabolic control.

Endocrine Reviews | 2008

Cellular and Molecular Basis of Deiodinase-Regulated Thyroid Hormone Signaling

Balázs Gereben; Ann Marie Zavacki; Scott Ribich; Brian W. Kim; Stephen A. Huang; Warner S. Simonides; Anikó Zeöld; Antonio C. Bianco

The iodothyronine deiodinases initiate or terminate thyroid hormone action and therefore are critical for the biological effects mediated by thyroid hormone. Over the years, research has focused on their role in preserving serum levels of the biologically active molecule T(3) during iodine deficiency. More recently, a fascinating new role of these enzymes has been unveiled. The activating deiodinase (D2) and the inactivating deiodinase (D3) can locally increase or decrease thyroid hormone signaling in a tissue- and temporal-specific fashion, independent of changes in thyroid hormone serum concentrations. This mechanism is particularly relevant because deiodinase expression can be modulated by a wide variety of endogenous signaling molecules such as sonic hedgehog, nuclear factor-kappaB, growth factors, bile acids, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, as well as a growing number of xenobiotic substances. In light of these findings, it seems clear that deiodinases play a much broader role than once thought, with great ramifications for the control of thyroid hormone signaling during vertebrate development and metamorphosis, as well as injury response, tissue repair, hypothalamic function, and energy homeostasis in adults.

Journal of Clinical Investigation | 2006

Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action

Antonio C. Bianco; Brian W. Kim

The deiodinases activate or inactivate thyroid hormone, and their importance in thyroid hormone homeostasis has become increasingly clear with the availability of deiodinase-deficient animals. At the same time, heightened interest in the field has been generated following the discovery that the type 2 deiodinase can be an important component in both the Hedgehog signaling pathway and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1-mediated (GPBAR1-mediated) signaling cascade. The discovery of these new roles for the deiodinases indicates that tissue-specific deiodination plays a much broader role than once thought, extending into the realms of developmental biology and metabolism.

Obesity | 2009

Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

Mary-Elizabeth Patti; Sander M. Houten; Antonio C. Bianco; Raquel Bernier; P. Reed Larsen; Jens J. Holst; Michael K. Badman; Eleftheria Maratos-Flier; Edward C. Mun; Jussi Pihlajamäki; Johan Auwerx; Allison B. Goldfine

The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux‐en‐Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G‐protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross‐sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post‐meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post‐GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P < 0.05). Total bile acids were inversely correlated with 2‐h post‐meal glucose (r = −0.59, P < 0.003) and fasting triglycerides (r = −0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = −0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB.

Thyroid | 2014

Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

Jacqueline Jonklaas; Antonio C. Bianco; Andrew J. Bauer; Kenneth D. Burman; Anne R. Cappola; Francesco S. Celi; David S. Cooper; Brian W. Kim; Robin P. Peeters; M. Sara Rosenthal; Anna M. Sawka

BACKGROUND A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. METHODS Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. RESULTS We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non-levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine-liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile.

Journal of Biological Chemistry | 2006

Perilipin Promotes Hormone-sensitive Lipase-mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis via Phosphorylation-dependent and -independent Mechanisms

Hideaki Miyoshi; Sandra C. Souza; Hui-Hong Zhang; Katherine J. Strissel; Marcelo A. Christoffolete; Julia Kovsan; Assaf Rudich; Fredric B. Kraemer; Antonio C. Bianco; Martin S. Obin; Andrew S. Greenberg

Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the predominant lipase effector of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. HSL-dependent lipolysis in response to catecholamines is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of perilipin A (Peri A), an essential lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein. It is believed that perilipin phosphorylation is essential for the translocation of HSL from the cytosol to the LD, a key event in stimulated lipolysis. Using adipocytes retrovirally engineered from murine embryonic fibroblasts of perilipin null mice (Peri–/– MEF), we demonstrate by cell fractionation and confocal microscopy that up to 50% of cellular HSL is LD-associated in the basal state and that PKA-stimulated HSL translocation is fully supported by adenoviral expression of a mutant perilipin lacking all six PKA sites (Peri AΔ1–6). PKA-stimulated HSL translocation was confirmed in differentiated brown adipocytes from perilipin null mice expressing an adipose-specific Peri AΔ1–6 transgene. Thus, PKA-induced HSL translocation was independent of perilipin phosphorylation. However, Peri AΔ1–6 failed to enhance PKA-stimulated lipolysis in either MEF adipocytes or differentiated brown adipocytes. Thus, the lipolytic action(s) of HSL at the LD surface requires PKA-dependent perilipin phosphorylation. In Peri–/– MEF adipocytes, PKA activation significantly enhanced the amount of HSL that could be cross-linked to and co-immunoprecipitated with ectopic Peri A. Notably, this enhanced cross-linking was blunted in Peri–/– MEF adipocytes expressing Peri AΔ1–6. This suggests that PKA-dependent perilipin phosphorylation facilitates (either direct or indirect) perilipin interaction with LD-associated HSL. These results redefine and expand our understanding of how perilipin regulates HSL-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes.

Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | 2011

Epicardial adipose tissue: emerging physiological, pathophysiological and clinical features

Gianluca Iacobellis; Antonio C. Bianco

Epicardial adipose tissue is an unusual visceral fat depot with anatomical and functional contiguity to the myocardium and coronary arteries. Under physiological conditions, epicardial adipose tissue displays biochemical, mechanical and thermogenic cardioprotective properties. Under pathological circumstances, epicardial fat can locally affect the heart and coronary arteries through vasocrine or paracrine secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. What influences this equilibrium remains unclear. Improved local vascularization, weight loss, and targeted pharmaceutical interventions could help to return epicardial fat to its physiological role. This review focuses on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological aspects of the epicardial fat and its numerous and innovative clinical applications. Particular emphasis is placed on the paracrine/endocrine properties of epicardial fat and its role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Journal of Biological Chemistry | 2007

Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor γ Coactivator-1 Expression Is Reduced in Obesity POTENTIAL PATHOGENIC ROLE OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND p38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE ACTIVATION

Sarah Crunkhorn; Farrell Dearie; Christos S. Mantzoros; Hiral Gami; Wagner S. da Silva; Daniel Espinoza; Ryan R. Faucette; Kristen Barry; Antonio C. Bianco; Mary-Elizabeth Patti

Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1) is a major candidate gene for diabetes-related metabolic phenotypes, contributing to decreased expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in muscle and adipose tissue. We have demonstrated that muscle expression of PGC-1α and -β is reduced in both genetic (Lepob/Lepob) and acquired obesity (high fat diet). In C57BL6 mice, muscle PGC-1α expression decreased by 43% (p < 0.02) after 1 week of a high fat diet and persisted more than 11 weeks. In contrast, PGC-1α reductions were not sustained in obesity-resistant A/J mice. To identify mediators of obesity-linked reductions in PGC-1, we tested the effects of cellular nutrients in C2C12 myotubes. Although overnight exposure to high insulin, glucose, glucosamine, or amino acids had no effect, saturated fatty acids potently reduced PGC-1α and -β mRNA expression. Palmitate decreased PGC-1α and -β expression by 38% (p = 0.01) and 53% (p = 0.006); stearate similarly decreased expression of PGC-1α and -β by 22% (p = 0.02) and 39% (p = 0.02). These effects were mediated at a transcriptional level, as indicated by an 11-fold reduction of PGC-1α promoter activity by palmitate and reversal of effects by histone deacetylase inhibition. Palmitate also (a) reduced expression of tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrial genes and (b) reduced oxygen consumption. These effects were reversed by overexpression of PGC-1α or -β, indicating PGC-1 dependence. Palmitate effects also required p38 MAPK, as demonstrated by 1) palmitate-induced increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, 2) reversal of palmitate effects on PGC-1 and mitochondrial gene expression by p38 MAPK inhibitors, and 3) reversal of palmitate effects by small interfering RNA-mediated decreases in p38α MAPK. These data indicate that obesity and saturated fatty acids decrease PGC-1 and mitochondrial gene expression and function via p38 MAPK-dependent transcriptional pathways.

Genes & Development | 2010

Wnt signaling regulates mitochondrial physiology and insulin sensitivity

John C. Yoon; Aylwin Ng; Brian H. Kim; Antonio C. Bianco; Ramnik J. Xavier; Stephen J. Elledge

Mitochondria serve a critical role in physiology and disease. The genetic basis of mitochondrial regulation in mammalian cells has not yet been detailed. We performed a large-scale RNAi screen to systematically identify genes that affect mitochondrial abundance and function. This screen revealed previously unrecognized roles for >150 proteins in mitochondrial regulation. We report that increased Wnt signals are a potent activator of mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, leading to DNA damage and acceleration of cellular senescence in primary cells. The signaling protein insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), shown here to be a transcriptional target of Wnt, is induced in this setting. The increased level of IRS-1 drives activation of mitochondrial biogenesis; furthermore, in insulin-responsive cell types, it enhances insulin signaling, raising the possibility that Wnt proteins may be used to modulate glucose homeostasis. Our results identify a key component of the mitochondrial regulatory apparatus with a potentially important link to metabolic and degenerative disorders.

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | 2008

Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by deiodinases: Local action with general consequences

Balázs Gereben; Anikó Zeöld; Monica Dentice; Domenico Salvatore; Antonio C. Bianco

Abstract.The thyroid hormone plays a fundamental role in the development, growth, and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates by affecting the expression of different sets of genes. A group of thioredoxin fold-containing selenoproteins known as deiodinases control thyroid hormone action by activating or inactivating the precursor molecule thyroxine that is secreted by the thyroid gland. These pathways ensure regulation of the availability of the biologically active molecule T3, which occurs in a time-and tissue-specific fashion. In addition, because cells and plasma are in equilibrium and deiodination affects central thyroid hormone regulation, these local deiodinase-mediated events can also affect systemic thyroid hormone economy, such as in the case of non-thyroidal illness. Heightened interest in the field has been generated following the discovery that the deiodinases can be a component in both the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and the TGR-5 signaling cascade, a G-protein-coupled receptor for bile acids. These new mechanisms involved in deiodinase regulation indicate that local thyroid hormone activation and inactivation play a much broader role than previously thought.


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Balázs Gereben

Hungarian Academy of Sciences

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John W. Harney

Institut national de recherche et de sécurité

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P. Reed Larsen

Brigham and Women's Hospital

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Miriam O. Ribeiro

Mackenzie Presbyterian University

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Elizabeth A. McAninch

Rush University Medical Center

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Csaba Fekete

Queen Mary University of London

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