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European Journal of Clinical Investigation | 2004
Atul Mehta; Roberta Ricci; Urs Widmer; F. Dehout; A. García De Lorenzo; Christoph Kampmann; Ales Linhart; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Markus Ries; Michael Beck
Background Fabry disease is a rare X‐linked disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α‐galactosidase A. Progressive accumulation of the substrate globotriaosylceramide in cells throughout the body leads to major organ failure and premature death. In response to the recent introduction of enzyme replacement therapy, the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) was established to pool data from European clinics on the natural history of this little‐known disease and to monitor the long‐term efficacy and safety of treatment. This paper presents the first analysis of the FOS database and provides essential baseline data against which the effects of enzyme replacement can be measured.
Heart | 2008
Derralynn Hughes; Perry M. Elliott; Js Shah; J Zuckerman; G Coghlan; J Brookes; Atul Mehta
Background: Anderson–Fabry disease is an X-linked glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. This leads to a progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in the lysosomes of cells throughout the body that ultimately results in premature death from renal, cardiac or cerebrovascular complications. Until recently, there was no effective therapy available for this disease. The present study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa on the cardiac manifestations of Anderson–Fabry disease. Method: The effects of therapy with agalsidase alfa on cardiac structure and function were assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 15 adult male patients with Anderson–Fabry disease. The following parameters were measured at baseline and 6 months: left ventricular mass, QRS duration and levels of Gb3 in cardiac tissue, urine sediment and plasma. After 6 months of the randomised trial patients were enrolled in a 2-year open-label extension study. Results: Left ventricular mass, as measured by MRI, was significantly reduced following 6 months of treatment with agalsidase alfa compared with placebo (p = 0.041). A mean 20% reduction in myocardial Gb3 content as assessed by serial transvenous endomyocardial biopsies was demonstrated over the 6 months of enzyme replacement compared to a mean 10% increase in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.42) Conclusion: Enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa resulted in regression of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with Anderson–Fabry disease.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | 2004
Leonie A. Boven; Marjan van Meurs; Rolf G. Boot; Atul Mehta; Louis Boon; Johannes M. F. G. Aerts; Jon D. Laman
Although the existence of anti-inflammatory alternatively activated macrophages (aamphi) has been accepted widely based on in vitro studies, their in vivo location, phenotype, and function still are debated. Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by a genetic deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase and is characterized by accumulation of glycosphingolipids in so-called Gaucher cells (GCs). By using immunohistochemical analysis, we investigated whether this results in an aamphi phenotype. GCs are macrophage-like cells, expressing acid phosphatase, CD68, CD14, and HLA class II, but not CD11b, CD40, or dendritic cell markers. GCs show infrequent immunoreactivity for mannose receptor GCs did not express proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but did express the aamphi markers CD163, CCL18, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, CD36 and signal receptor protein alpha, involved in lipid uptake, also were observed on GCs. Thus, GCs represent a distinctive population of myeloid cells that resemble aamphi but differ from previously described in vitro aamphi.
Circulation-cardiovascular Imaging | 2013
Daniel Sado; Steven K White; Stefan K Piechnik; Sanjay M. Banypersad; Thomas A. Treibel; Gabriella Captur; Marianna Fontana; Viviana Maestrini; Andrew S. Flett; Matthew D. Robson; Robin H. Lachmann; Elaine Murphy; Atul Mehta; Derralynn Hughes; Stefan Neubauer; Perry M. Elliott; James C. Moon
Background— Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare but underdiagnosed intracellular lipid disorder that can cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Lipid is known to shorten the magnetic resonance imaging parameter T1. We hypothesized that noncontrast T1 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance would provide a novel and useful measure in this disease with potential to detect early cardiac involvement and distinguish AFD LVH from other causes. Methods and Results— Two hundred twenty-seven subjects were studied: patients with AFD (n=44; 55% with LVH), healthy volunteers (n=67; 0% with LVH), patients with hypertension (n=41; 24% with LVH), patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=34; 100% with LVH), those with severe aortic stenosis (n=21; 81% with LVH), and patients with definite amyloid light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis (n=20; 100% with LVH). T1 mapping was performed using the shortened modified Look-Locker inversion sequence on a 1.5-T magnet before gadolinium administration with primary results derived from the basal and midseptum. Compared with health volunteers, septal T1 was lower in AFD and higher in other diseases (AFD versus healthy volunteers versus other patients, 882±47, 968±32, 1018±74 milliseconds; P<0.0001). In patients with LVH (n=105), T1 discriminated completely between AFD and other diseases with no overlap. In AFD, T1 correlated inversely with wall thickness (r=−0.51; P=0.0004) and was abnormal in 40% of subjects who did not have LVH. Segmentally, AFD showed pseudonormalization or elevation of T1 in the left ventricular inferolateral wall, correlating with the presence or absence of late gadolinium enhancement (1001±82 versus 891±38 milliseconds; P<0.0001). Conclusions— Noncontrast T1 mapping shows potential as a unique and powerful measurement in the imaging assessment of LVH and AFD.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | 2004
Michael Beck; Roberta Ricci; Urs Widmer; F. Dehout; A. García De Lorenzo; Christoph Kampmann; Ales Linhart; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Gunnar Houge; Uma Ramaswami; Andreas Gal; Atul Mehta
Background Fabry disease is a rare X‐linked disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme α‐galactosidase A. Progressive accumulation of the substrate globotriaosylceramide in cells throughout the body leads to major organ failure and premature death. The Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) is a European outcomes database which was established to collect data on the natural history of this little‐known disease and to monitor the long‐term efficacy and safety of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase alfa. This paper presents the first analysis of the FOS database on the effects of ERT on renal function, heart size, pain and quality of life.
The Lancet | 2009
Atul Mehta; Michael Beck; Perry M. Elliott; Roberto Giugliani; Ales Linhart; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Raphael Schiffmann; F. Barbey; M. Ries; Jtr Clarke
BACKGROUND We analysed 5-year treatment with agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabrys disease who were enrolled in the Fabry Outcome Survey observational database (FOS). METHODS Baseline and 5-year data were available for up to 181 adults (126 men) in FOS. Serial data for cardiac mass and function, renal function, pain, and quality of life were assessed. Safety and sensitivity analyses were done in patients with baseline and at least one relevant follow-up measurement during the 5 years (n=555 and n=475, respectively). FINDINGS In patients with baseline cardiac hypertrophy, treatment resulted in a sustained reduction in left ventricular mass (LVM) index after 5 years (from 71.4 [SD 22.5] g/m(2.7) to 64.1 [18.7] g/m(2.7), p=0.0111) and a significant increase in midwall fractional shortening (MFS) from 14.3% (2.3) to 16.0% (3.8) after 3 years (p=0.02). In patients without baseline hypertrophy, LVM index and MFS remained stable. Mean yearly fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate versus baseline after 5 years of enzyme replacement therapy was -3.17 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for men and -0.89 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for women. Average pain, measured by Brief Pain Inventory score, improved significantly, from 3.7 (2.3) at baseline to 2.5 (2.4) after 5 years (p=0.0023). Quality of life, measured by deviation scores from normal EuroQol values, improved significantly, from -0.24 (0.3) at baseline to -0.17 (0.3) after 5 years (p=0.0483). Findings were confirmed by sensitivity analysis. No unexpected safety concerns were identified. INTERPRETATION By comparison with historical natural history data for patients with Fabrys disease who were not treated with enzyme replacement therapy, long-term treatment with agalsidase alfa leads to substantial and sustained clinical benefits. FUNDING Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB.
Acta Paediatrica | 2006
Uma Ramaswami; Catharina Whybra; Rosella Parini; Guillem Pintos-Morell; Atul Mehta; Gere Sunder-Plassmann; Urs Widmer; Michael Beck
Background: Fabry disease is a rare X‐linked disorder caused by deficient activity of the enzyme α‐galactosidase A. This produces progressive lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide throughout the body, leading to organ failure and premature death. Aim: Here, we present the clinical manifestations of Fabry disease in children enrolled in FOS—the Fabry Outcome Survey—a European database of the natural history of Fabry disease and the effects of enzyme replacement therapy with agalsidase alfa (Replagal™). Methods: Currently, there are 545 patients in FOS, from 11 European countries. We analysed the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of 82 of these patients (40 boys, 42 girls) who were below 18 y of age. The median age at evaluation (defined as the median age at entry into FOS) was 12.5 and 13.2 y for boys and girls, respectively. Results: The most frequent early clinical manifestations of Fabry disease were neurological (acroparaesthesiae, altered temperature sensitivity) and gastrointestinal symptoms (altered bowel habits and abdominal pain), which were documented in about 80% and 60% of patients, respectively, at the time of evaluation and subsequent entry into FOS. Tinnitus, vertigo, fatigue and angiokeratoma were present in over 40% of patients. Symptoms were noted in early childhood and occurred with similar frequency in boys and girls, although the onset of symptoms was 2–5 y later in girls than in boys. There was an approximately 3‐y delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and patients were frequently misdiagnosed.
Heart | 2012
Daniel Sado; Andrew S. Flett; Sanjay M. Banypersad; Steven K White; Maestrini; Giovanni Quarta; Robin H. Lachmann; Elaine Murphy; Atul Mehta; Derralynn Hughes; William J. McKenna; Andrew M. Taylor; Derek J. Hausenloy; Philip N. Hawkins; Perry M. Elliott; James C. Moon
Objective To measure and assess the significance of myocardial extracellular volume (ECV), determined non-invasively by equilibrium contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as a clinical biomarker in health and a number of cardiac diseases of varying pathophysiology. Design Prospective study. Setting Tertiary referral cardiology centre in London, UK. Patients 192 patients were mainly recruited from specialist clinics. We studied patients with Anderson–Fabry disease (AFD, n=17), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n=31), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n=31), severe aortic stenosis (AS, n=66), cardiac AL amyloidosis (n=27) and myocardial infarction (MI, n=20). The results were compared with those for 81 normal subjects. Results In normal subjects, ECV (mean (95% CI), measured in the septum) was slightly higher in women than men (0.273 (0.264 to 0.282 vs 0.233 (0.225 to 0.244), p<0.001), with no change with age. In disease, the ECV of AFD was the same as in normal subjects but higher in all other diseases (p<0.001). Mean ECV was the same in DCM, HCM and AS (0.280, 0.291, 0.276 respectively), but higher in cardiac AL amyloidosis and higher again in MI (0.466 and 0.585 respectively, each p<0.001). Where ECV was elevated, correlations were found with indexed left ventricular mass, end systolic volume, ejection fraction and left atrial area in apparent disease-specific patterns. Conclusions Myocardial ECV, assessed non-invasively in the septum with equilibrium contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance, shows gender differences in normal individuals and disease-specific variability. Therefore, ECV shows early potential to be a useful biomarker in health and disease.
Journal of Medical Genetics | 2009
Atul Mehta; Joe T.R. Clarke; Roberto Giugliani; Perry M. Elliott; Ales Linhart; Michael Beck; Gere Sunder-Plassmann
Background: Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterised by severe multisystemic involvement that leads to major organ failure and premature death in affected men and women. Over the past 7 years, the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) has collected data on the natural history of Fabry disease, and the long-term efficacy and safety of enzyme-replacement therapy. This paper provides an update on the first analysis of FOS data. Design: Baseline data on clinical manifestations and causes of death in a cohort of 1453 patients (699 male, 754 female) from 19 countries worldwide were analysed. Causes of death of affected relatives were analysed separately. Results: The most frequently reported signs and symptoms of Fabry disease were neurological. Cardiac, ocular, gastrointestinal, dermatological, auditory and renal manifestations were also common. The principal causes of death among 181 affected relatives of patients in FOS (most of whom had died before 2001) were renal failure in males (42%) and cerebrovascular disease in females (25%). In contrast, of the 42 patients enrolled in FOS whose deaths were reported between 2001 and 2007, cardiac disease was the main cause of death in both male (34%) and female (57%) patients. Conclusion: These data suggest that the importance of renal disease as a cause of death in patients with Fabry disease is decreasing while the importance of cardiac disease is increasing. This pattern probably reflects improvements in the management of renal disease in patients with Fabry disease.
British Journal of Haematology | 1995
Lorna M. Secker-Walker; Atul Mehta; Barbara J. Bain
Summary. Cytogenetic and clinical details are presented for 66 patients with myeloid malignancy and chromosome abnormalities of 3q21 and/or 3q26 (3qabns). Bone marrow and/or peripheral blood morphology was assessed for 52 cases. 3qabns in Philadelphia negative (Ph–ve) and positive (Ph + ve) cases were inv(3)(q21q26), (21 Ph‐ve, 6Ph + ve); t(3;3)(q21;q26) (nine Ph‐ve, four Ph + ve); and t(3;21)(q26;q22) (four Ph‐ve, six Ph + ve). Ph‐ve cases also had t(l;3)(p36;q21) (three cases), and t(3;5)(q21;q31)/ (q21;q35)/(q26;q21) (five cases aged <40 years). Three cases, aged < 30 years, had t(3;12)(q26;p13) which defines a new 3qabn subgroup. Monosomy 7 and/or 5q‐ accompanied inv(3) or t(3;3) in 17/30 cases. All cases had a myeloid malignancy (predominantly AML M1, M4 or M7), frequent trilineage myelodysplasia, and markedly abnormal megakaryopoiesis with micromegakaryocytes (<30/mi). Thrombocytosis occurred in two cases only. Most Ph + ve cases were in myeloid blast crisis and in Ph + ve cases alone, micro‐megakaryocytes were uniquely small (10 μm) in 7/11 cases. There were equal numbers of males and females. Seven secondary leukaemias were found in Ph–ve cases with inv(3), t(3;3), t(3;21), t(l;3) or del(3)(q21). Three cases with t(3;21) (one Ph + ve) were de novo AML or had de novo aplastic anaemia. Survival was rarely greater than 12 months from detection of the 3qabn.