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Journal of The American Society of Echocardiography | 1996
Chuwa Tei; Karl S. Dujardin; David O. Hodge; Kent R. Bailey; Michael D. McGoon; A. Jamil Tajik; James B. Seward
Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function remains difficult and challenging. However, there is considerable clinical need for a simple, reproducible, and reliable parameter of right ventricular function in patients with right-sided heart disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of a Doppler-derived index, combining systolic and diastolic intervals of the right cycle, in assessing global right ventricular function in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. The study population comprised 26 consecutive patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and 37 age-matched normal subjects. The sum of right ventricular isovolumetric contraction time and isovolumetric relaxation time was obtained by subtracting right ventricular ejection time from the interval between cessation and onset of the tricuspid inflow velocities with pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. An index of combined right ventricular systolic and diastolic function was obtained by dividing the sum of both isovolumetric intervals by ejection time. The index was compared with available parameters of systolic or diastolic function, clinical symptoms, and survival. Right ventricular isovolumetric contraction time and isovolumetric relaxation time were prolonged significantly in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (85 +/- 41 msec and 135 +/- 43 msec) compared with normal subjects (38 +/- 7 msec and 49 +/- 9 msec, respectively; p < 0.001). Ejection time was shortened significantly in patients with pulmonary hypertension (241 +/- 43 msec versus normal [322 +/- 21 msec]; p < 0.001). However, the index was the single most powerful variable to discriminate patients with primary pulmonary hypertension from normal subjects (0.93 +/- 0.34 versus 0.28 +/- 0.04; p < 0.001) and was the strongest predictor of clinical status and survival. The index was not significantly affected by heart rate, right ventricular pressure, right ventricular dilation, or tricuspid regurgitation. It is well known that right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction coexist in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. This article reports the use of an easily obtainable Doppler-derived index that combines elements of systolic and diastolic function. This index appears to be a useful noninvasive means that correlates with symptoms and survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 1996
Chuwa Tei; Karl S. Dujardin; David O. Hodge; Robert A. Kyle; A. Jamil Tajik; James B. Seward
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to determine the clinical value of a Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance in the assessment of cardiac amyloidosis. BACKGROUND Cardiac amyloidosis is an infiltrative disease with diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Therefore, the index of myocardial performance combining systolic and diastolic time intervals could be a useful predictor of clinical outcome in cardiac amyloidosis. METHODS The study included 45 patients with biopsy-proved amyloidosis and 45 age-matched normal subjects. All patients had typical echocardiographic features of amyloid cardiac involvement. A Doppler-derived index, defined as the sum of isovolumetric contraction time and isovolumetric relaxation time divided by ejection time, was measured from left ventricular outflow and mitral inflow Doppler velocity profiles recorded during routine echocardiography. The index as well as conventional systolic or diastolic echocardiographic/Doppler variables were related to subsequent outcome. RESULTS The isovolumetric contraction and relaxation times were prolonged and ejection time was shortened (p < 0.001) in patients with amyloidosis compared with that in normal subjects, resulting in a marked increase of the index from normal values (p < 0.001). In the amyloid group the index was highest in patients with a low stroke index or with both shortened mitral deceleration time and lower ejection fraction. By univariate analysis, New York Heart Association functional class, the index, ejection fraction and mitral deceleration time were significant predictors of outcome. However, by multivariate stepwise regression analysis, functional class and the index were the only independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS The Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance correlates with global cardiac dysfunction and is a useful predictor of clinical outcome in patients with cardiac amyloidosis.
Ophthalmology | 1998
Jeffrey J Ing; Helen H Ing; Leif R. Nelson; David O. Hodge; William M. Bourne
OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes in central corneal endothelial cells and corneal thickness in transplanted corneas from 5 to 10 years after grafting. This study also aimed to investigate the development of glaucoma, graft rejection, and graft failure during the first 10 postoperative years. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study of 500 consecutive penetrating keratoplasties by 1 surgeon. Patients were asked to return for follow-up examinations at 2 months and at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after grafting. The authors excluded eyes regrafted during the study and the fellow eyes of bilateral cases, leaving 394 grafts in 394 patients for analysis. INTERVENTION Penetrating keratoplasty was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Using specular microscopy, the authors measured endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and corneal thickness. The authors performed clinical examinations to determine graft rejection or failure and the development of glaucoma. RESULTS By 10 years postkeratoplasty, 80 of the 394 patients had died and 68 grafts had failed. Of the remaining 246 patients, 119 (48%) returned for their 10-year examinations. For the 72 patients who returned for all of the scheduled postoperative visits and had no rejection episodes, reoperations, or failure, endothelial cell loss from preoperative donor levels at 10 years was 67 +/- 18% (mean +/- standard deviation), endothelial cell density was 958 +/- 471 cells/mm2, coefficient of variation was 0.32 +/- 0.11, hexagonal cells were 56 +/- 12%, and corneal thickness was 0.58 +/- 0.05 mm. The 5- to 10-year changes for all these values were significant (P < or = 0.004). The mean rate of late endothelial cell loss from 5 to 10 years postkeratoplasty was 4.2% per year. Eyes that were aphakic after grafting had the lowest endothelial cell loss (57 +/- 24%) and the lowest interval cell loss from 5 to 10 years postkeratoplasty (4 +/- 19%). Eyes that were phakic had the highest endothelial cell loss (73 +/- 8%) and 5- to 10-year-interval cell loss (17 +/- 31%). Eyes with posterior chamber lenses had a greater endothelial cell loss (71 +/- 9%) than did eyes with anterior chamber lenses (51 +/- 25%, P = 0.03). The 10-year cumulative risk of glaucoma, rejection, or failure was 21%, 21%, and 22%, respectively. Late endothelial failure became the major cause for graft failure, accounting for 9 of the 11 failures after 5 postoperative years. CONCLUSIONS From 5 to 10 years after penetrating keratoplasty, the annual rate of endothelial cell loss was seven times the normal rate. The endothelial cell loss, pleomorphism, polymegethism, and corneal thickness increased significantly during this time, indicating continued endothelial instability and dysfunction, resulting in an increasing rate of late endothelial failure.
Circulation | 1995
Todd D. Miller; Timothy F. Christian; Mona R. Hopfenspirger; David O. Hodge; Bernard J. Gersh; Raymond J. Gibbons
BACKGROUND 99mTc sestamibi is a recently developed radioisotope that has been used to measure myocardium at risk and infarct size. The relation between these measurements and subsequent patient outcome has not yet been demonstrated. METHODS AND RESULTS Two hundred seventy-four consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent tomographic 99mTc sestamibi imaging on arrival at the hospital (to measure myocardium at risk before reperfusion therapy) and at hospital discharge (to measure the amount of salvaged myocardium and final infarct size). Defect size on the sestamibi images was quantified using a threshold value of 60% of peak counts from the circumferential count profile curves generated for five representative slices of the left ventricle. Patients were followed after hospital discharge to evaluate the association between final infarct size and subsequent mortality. The median defect size measured was 27% of the left ventricle at presentation to the hospital (range, 0% to 77%) and was 12% of the left ventricle at hospital discharge (range, 0% to 68%). Almost one half of the patients had a final infarct size of < or = 10%. The median amount of myocardium salvaged was 9% (range, -31% to 75%). During a median duration of follow-up of 12 months, there were 10 deaths (7 cardiac and 3 noncardiac) and 1 resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There was a significant association between infarct size and overall mortality (chi 2 = 8.66, P = .003) and cardiac mortality (chi 2 = 11.89, P < .001). Two-year mortality was 7% for patients whose infarct size was > or = 12% versus 0% for patients whose infarct size was < 12%. There also was a significant association between myocardium at risk and cardiac mortality (chi 2 = 6.87, P = .009). There was no association between myocardium at risk and overall mortality or between amount of myocardium salvaged and either overall mortality or cardiac mortality. CONCLUSIONS Larger infarct size measured by 99mTc sestamibi imaging after acute myocardial infarction is associated with increased mortality risk during short-term follow-up.
American Journal of Cardiology | 1998
Karl S. Dujardin; Chuwa Tei; Tiong Cheng Yeo; David O. Hodge; Andrea Rossi; James B. Seward
This study sought to investigate, in patients with idiopathic-dilated cardiomyopathy, the clinical and prognostic value of a Doppler-derived index of myocardial function that combines systolic and diastolic time intervals of the left heart cycle. The Doppler index was measured in 75 patients (aged 61 +/- 13 years; 45 men and 30 women) in sinus rhythm and 75 age- and sex-matched controls. Ejection time was measured from the left ventricular outflow Doppler signal. The sum of isovolumic times was obtained by subtracting the ejection time from the interval between cessation and onset of mitral inflow measured from the mitral inflow velocity profile. The index was the sum of isovolumic times divided by ejection time. The values of the Doppler index in patients with idiopathic-dilated cardiomyopathy (0.85 +/- 0.32) were significantly higher than values in controls (0.37 +/- 0.08, p < 0.001). During follow-up of 5 years, 1 patient underwent cardiac transplantation and 36 patients died, 29 of cardiac, 5 of noncardiac, and 2 of unknown causes. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the Doppler index (chi-square = 18.3, p < 0.001), ejection fraction (chi-square = 15.2, p <0.001), symptom status (chi-square = 9.2, p = 0.002), and mitral deceleration time (chi-square = 5.2, p = 0.02) were significant predictors of outcome. However, multivariate stepwise analysis of these variables showed that the Doppler index (chi-square = 10.7, p = 0.001) and ejection fraction (chi-square = 6.7, p = 0.01) were the most significant independent predictors of outcome. The Doppler index reflects disease severity and has incremental prognostic value in dilated cardiomyopathy. Ease of use, nongeometric dependency, excellent separation of clinical groups, and a strong relation to outcome enhance its appeal.
Circulation | 2000
Heidi M. Connolly; Jae K. Oh; Hartzell V. Schaff; Véronique L. Roger; Sara L. Osborn; David O. Hodge; A. Jamil Tajik
BACKGROUND The outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis, low transvalvular gradient, and severe left ventricular dysfunction is not well known. METHODS AND RESULTS Between 1985 and 1995, 52 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) < or =35% and aortic stenosis with transvalvular mean gradient <30 mm Hg underwent aortic valve replacement. The mean (+/-SD) preoperative characteristics included EF, 26+/-8%; aortic valve mean gradient, 23+/-4 mm Hg; aortic valve area, 0.7+/-0.2 cm(2); and cardiac output, 3.7+/-1.2 L/min. Simultaneous coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed in 32 patients (62%). Perioperative (30-day) mortality was 21% (11 of 52 patients). Ten additional patients died during follow-up. Advanced age (P=0.048) and small aortic prosthesis size (P=0.03) were significant predictors of hospital mortality by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, the only predictor of surgical mortality was smaller prosthesis size. The only predictor of postoperative survival was improvement in postoperative functional class (P=0.04). Postoperative functional improvement occurred in most patients. Postoperative EF was assessed in 93% of survivors; 74% demonstrated improvement. Positive change in EF was related to smaller preoperative aortic valve area and female sex. CONCLUSIONS Despite severe left ventricular dysfunction, low transvalvular mean gradient, and increased operative mortality, aortic valve replacement was associated with improved functional status. Postoperative survival was related to younger patient age and larger aortic prosthesis size, and medium-term survival was related to improved postoperative functional class.
Circulation | 2007
Arshad Jahangir; Victor Lee; Paul A. Friedman; Jane M. Trusty; David O. Hodge; Stephen L. Kopecky; Douglas L. Packer; Stephen C. Hammill; Win Kuang Shen; Bernard J. Gersh
Background— The long-term natural history of lone atrial fibrillation is unknown. Our objective was to determine the rate and predictors of progression from paroxysmal to permanent atrial fibrillation over 30 years and the long-term risk of heart failure, thromboembolism, and death compared with a control population. Methods and Results— A previously characterized Olmsted County, Minnesota, population with first episode of documented atrial fibrillation between 1950 and 1980 and no concomitant heart disease or hypertension was followed up long term. Of this unique cohort, 76 patients with paroxysmal (n=34), persistent (n=37), or permanent (n=5) lone atrial fibrillation at initial diagnosis met inclusion criteria (mean age at diagnosis, 44.2±11.7 years; male, 78%). Mean duration of follow-up was 25.2±9.5 years. Of 71 patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation, 22 had progression to permanent atrial fibrillation. Overall survival of the 76 patients with lone atrial fibrillation was 92% and 68% at 15 and 30 years, respectively, similar to 86% and 57% survival for the age- and sex-matched Minnesota population. Observed survival free of heart failure was slightly worse than expected (P=0.051). Risk for stroke or transient ischemic attack was similar to the expected population risk during the initial 25 years of follow-up but increased thereafter (P=0.004), although CIs were wide. All patients who had a cerebrovascular event had developed ≥1 risk factor for thromboembolism. Conclusions— Comorbidities significantly modulate progression and complications of atrial fibrillation. Age or development of hypertension increases thromboembolic risk.
Circulation | 1997
Heidi M. Connolly; Jae K. Oh; Thomas A. Orszulak; Sara L. Osborn; Véronique L. Roger; David O. Hodge; Kent R. Bailey; James B. Seward; A. Jamil Tajik
BACKGROUND Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS) carries an increased risk in the presence of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Few data are available on the outcome of such patients. METHODS AND RESULTS Between 1985 and 1992, 154 consecutive patients (107 men and 47 women) with LV systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] < or = 35%) underwent aortic valve replacement for AS. The mean preoperative characteristics included EF, 27 +/- 6%; aortic valve mean gradient, 44 +/- 18 mm Hg; aortic valve area, 0.6 +/- 0.2 cm2; and cardiac output, 4.1 +/- 1.5 L/min. Simultaneous coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed in 78 patients (51%). Perioperative (30-day) mortality was 9% (14 of 154 patients). Fifty patients died during follow-up. Coronary artery disease (P = .002) and a reduced preoperative cardiac output (P = .03) were significantly related to reduced overall survival rate by multivariate analysis. Postoperative improvement occurred in most patients; 88% were New York Heart Association class III or IV before surgery versus 7% after surgery. Postoperative EF was assessed in 76% of survivors; 76% of these demonstrated improvement. By multivariate analysis, change in EF was inversely related to coronary disease (P = .002) and preoperative aortic valve area (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS Despite LV dysfunction, the risk of aortic valve replacement for AS was acceptable and related to coronary artery disease and mean aortic gradient, and long-term survival was related to coronary disease and cardiac output. Improvement in symptoms and EF occurred in most patients.
American Journal of Ophthalmology | 1997
Matthew G. Hattenhauer; Jacqueline A. Leavitt; David O. Hodge; Robert Grill; Darryl T. Gray
Purpose Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common acute optic nerve disease of adults over age 50 years. This study determined the incidence of acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in the circumscribed population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods This was a retrospective study of the incidence of acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy between 1981 and 1990. The Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system facilitates identification of the medical records of virtually all Olmsted County residents with a given diagnosis. All cases of acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy that fulfilled certain inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. Results Twenty-two cases in 21 patients (11 men and 10 women) were recorded. The crude annual incidence rate was 10.3 per 100,000 individuals (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1 to 18.4). When adjusted to the age and sex distribution of the 1990 United States white population, the incidence rate was 10.2 per 100,000 (95% CI=6.5 to 15.6). At diagnosis, the median age was 72 years, mean visual acuity was 20/200 in the affected eye, and the most common visual field defect was an altitudinal deficit (10 cases). Conclusions Although results of this small study should be interpreted cautiously, extrapolation of our findings to the United States white population indicates that nearly 5,700 new cases of acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy may be expected to occur each year in this group.
Circulation | 2004
Win Kuang Shen; Wyatt W. Decker; Peter A. Smars; Deepi G. Goyal; Ann E. Walker; David O. Hodge; Jane M. Trusty; Karen M. Brekke; Arshad Jahangir; Peter A. Brady; Thomas M. Munger; Bernard J. Gersh; Stephen C. Hammill; Robert L. Frye
Background—The primary aim and central hypothesis of the study are that a designated syncope unit in the emergency department improves diagnostic yield and reduces hospital admission for patients with syncope who are at intermediate risk for an adverse cardiovascular outcome. Methods and Results—In this prospective, randomized, single-center study, patients were randomly allocated to 2 treatment arms: syncope unit evaluation and standard care. The 2 groups were compared with &khgr;2 test for independence of categorical variables. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for continuous variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. One hundred three consecutive patients (53 women; mean age 64±17 years) entered the study. Fifty-one patients were randomized to the syncope unit. For the syncope unit and standard care patients, the presumptive diagnosis was established in 34 (67%) and 5 (10%) patients (P<0.001), respectively, hospital admission was required for 22 (43%) and 51 (98%) patients (P<0.001), and total patient-hospital days were reduced from 140 to 64. Actuarial survival was 97% and 90% (P=0.30), and survival free from recurrent syncope was 88% and 89% (P=0.72) at 2 years for the syncope unit and standard care groups, respectively. Conclusions—The novel syncope unit designed for this study significantly improved diagnostic yield in the emergency department and reduced hospital admission and total length of hospital stay without affecting recurrent syncope and all-cause mortality among intermediate-risk patients. Observations from the present study provide benchmark data for improving patient care and effectively utilizing healthcare resources.