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The Lancet | 2015
Marco Valgimigli; Andrea Gagnor; Paolo Calabrò; Enrico Frigoli; Sergio Leonardi; Tiziana Zaro; Paolo Rubartelli; Carlo Briguori; Giuseppe Andò; Alessandra Repetto; Ugo Limbruno; Bernardo Cortese; Paolo Sganzerla; Alessandro Lupi; Mario Galli; Salvatore Colangelo; Salvatore Ierna; Arturo Ausiello; Patrizia Presbitero; Gennaro Sardella; Ferdinando Varbella; Giovanni Esposito; Andrea Santarelli; Simone Tresoldi; Marco Stefano Nazzaro; Antonio Zingarelli; Nicoletta De Cesare; Stefano Rigattieri; Paolo Tosi; Cataldo Palmieri
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether radial compared with femoral access improves outcomes in unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing invasive management. METHODS We did a randomised, multicentre, superiority trial comparing transradial against transfemoral access in patients with acute coronary syndrome with or without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were about to undergo coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to radial or femoral access with a web-based system. The randomisation sequence was computer generated, blocked, and stratified by use of ticagrelor or prasugrel, type of acute coronary syndrome (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, troponin positive or negative, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome), and anticipated use of immediate percutaneous coronary intervention. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The 30-day coprimary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and net adverse clinical events, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events or Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) major bleeding unrelated to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The analysis was by intention to treat. The two-sided α was prespecified at 0·025. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01433627. FINDINGS We randomly assigned 8404 patients with acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation, to radial (4197) or femoral (4207) access for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. 369 (8·8%) patients with radial access had major adverse cardiovascular events, compared with 429 (10·3%) patients with femoral access (rate ratio [RR] 0·85, 95% CI 0·74-0·99; p=0·0307), non-significant at α of 0·025. 410 (9·8%) patients with radial access had net adverse clinical events compared with 486 (11·7%) patients with femoral access (0·83, 95% CI 0·73-0·96; p=0·0092). The difference was driven by BARC major bleeding unrelated to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (1·6% vs 2·3%, RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·49-0·92; p=0·013) and all-cause mortality (1·6% vs 2·2%, RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·53-0·99; p=0·045). INTERPRETATION In patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive management, radial as compared with femoral access reduces net adverse clinical events, through a reduction in major bleeding and all-cause mortality. FUNDING The Medicines Company and Terumo.
Nature Medicine | 1995
Ciro Indolfi; Enrico V. Avvedimento; Antonio Rapacciuolo; Emilio Di Lorenzo; Giovanni Esposito; Eugenio Stabile; Antonio Feliciello; Evelina Mele; Paola Giuliano; Gianluigi Condorelli; Massimo Chiariello
Proliferation of smooth muscle cells of the arterial wall in response to local injury is an important aetiologic factor of vascular proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Ras proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signals from membrane to nucleus in many cell types. We investigated the role of ras proteins in the vascular response to arterial injury by inactivating cellular ras of rats in which the common carotid artery was subjected to balloon injury. DNA vectors expressing ras transdominant negative mutants, which interfere with ras function, reduced neointimal formation after injury. Our results indicate a key role for ras in smooth muscle cell proliferation and show that the local delivery of transdominant negative mutants of ras in vivo might prevent some of the acute vascular injury caused by balloon injury.
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2015
Marco Valgimigli; Enrico Frigoli; Sergio Leonardi; Martina Rothenbühler; Andrea Gagnor; Paolo Calabrò; Stefano Garducci; Paolo Rubartelli; Carlo Briguori; Giuseppe Andò; Alessandra Repetto; Ugo Limbruno; Roberto Garbo; Paolo Sganzerla; Filippo Russo; Alessandro Lupi; Bernardo Cortese; Arturo Ausiello; Salvatore Ierna; Giovanni Esposito; Patrizia Presbitero; Andrea Santarelli; Gennaro Sardella; Ferdinando Varbella; Simone Tresoldi; Nicoletta De Cesare; Stefano Rigattieri; Antonio Zingarelli; Paolo Tosi; Arnoud W.J. van 't Hof
BACKGROUND Conflicting evidence exists on the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin administered as part of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS We randomly assigned 7213 patients with an acute coronary syndrome for whom PCI was anticipated to receive either bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin. Patients in the bivalirudin group were subsequently randomly assigned to receive or not to receive a post-PCI bivalirudin infusion. Primary outcomes for the comparison between bivalirudin and heparin were the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and net adverse clinical events (a composite of major bleeding or a major adverse cardiovascular event). The primary outcome for the comparison of a post-PCI bivalirudin infusion with no post-PCI infusion was a composite of urgent target-vessel revascularization, definite stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events. RESULTS The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was not significantly lower with bivalirudin than with heparin (10.3% and 10.9%, respectively; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.09; P=0.44), nor was the rate of net adverse clinical events (11.2% and 12.4%, respectively; relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.03; P=0.12). Post-PCI bivalirudin infusion, as compared with no infusion, did not significantly decrease the rate of urgent target-vessel revascularization, definite stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events (11.0% and 11.9%, respectively; relative risk, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.11; P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS In patients with an acute coronary syndrome, the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events and net adverse clinical events were not significantly lower with bivalirudin than with unfractionated heparin. The rate of the composite of urgent target-vessel revascularization, definite stent thrombosis, or net adverse clinical events was not significantly lower with a post-PCI bivalirudin infusion than with no post-PCI infusion. (Funded by the Medicines Company and Terumo Medical; MATRIX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01433627.).
Circulation | 1995
Ciro Indolfi; Giovanni Esposito; Emilio Di Lorenzo; Antonio Rapacciuolo; Antonio Feliciello; Antonio Porcellini; Vittorio Enrico Avvedimento; Mario Condorelli; Massimo Chiariello
BACKGROUND A variable degree of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation after balloon injury has been reported in previous rat studies. It is unknown whether balloon injury induces c-fos expression and whether it is related to the degree of vascular injury in vivo. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that proportional increases in neointimal formation and c-fos expression might be present after different degrees of balloon dilation. METHODS AND RESULTS Angioplasty of the carotid artery was performed with a balloon catheter. Vascular injury was evaluated at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 atm (n = 6 for all). In 40 additional rats, total RNA dot blots were performed to assess the effect of various degrees of balloon injury on c-fos expression. SMC proliferation proportional to the increases of inflation pressure was found between 0 and 2 atm with neointimal areas of 0.002 +/- 0.002, 0.069 +/- 0.014, 0.128 +/- 0.043, 0.190 +/- 0.010, and 0.255 +/- 0.041 mm2, respectively. When the degree of SMC proliferation (neointima and neointima/media ratio) was plotted against balloon inflation pressure, a linear relation was observed (r = .733, P < .001 and r = .755, P < .001, respectively). An increase in c-fos expression proportional to the degree of injury was found 30 minutes after injury. CONCLUSIONS Neointimal proliferation produced by balloon injury is related to balloon inflation pressure, supporting the concept of an SMC proliferative response proportional to the degree of injury. The increase in SMC proliferation is associated with a proportional increase in the early expression of the c-fos nuclear proto-oncogene.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2000
Ciro Indolfi; Angelo Cioppa; Eugenio Stabile; Emilio Di Lorenzo; Giovanni Esposito; Alfonso Pisani; Antonio Leccia; Luigi Cavuto; Angela Maria Stingone; Alaide Chieffo; Claudia Capozzolo; Massimo Chiariello
OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the effects of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo after vascular injury. BACKGROUND Neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury is responsible for restenosis after arterial stenting, whereas arterial remodeling and neointimal formation are the causes of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. METHODS We assessed the effect of simvastatin on in vitro VSMC proliferation. To study the effects of simvastatin in vivo, balloon injury and stent deployment were performed in the common carotid artery of rats. Neointimal area was measured two weeks later in the balloon injury model and three weeks after stent deployment. RESULTS Simvastatin markedly inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro. In vivo, simvastatin reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the neointimal area and the neointima-media ratio after balloon injury from 0.266 +/- 0.015 mm2 to 0.080 +/- 0.026 mm2 and from 1.271 +/- 0.074 to 0.436 +/- 0.158 (p < 0.001 vs. control rats) at the highest dose. Simvastatin also significantly reduced the neointimal formation and the neointima-media ratio after stenting from 0.508 +/- 0.035 mm2 to 0.362 +/- 0.047 mm2 (p < 0.05 vs. control rats) and from 2.000 +/- 0.136 to 1.374 +/- 0.180 (p < 0.05 vs. control rats). The vessel thrombosis rate after stent deployment was 30% in the control group and 11.1% in the treated group (p = NS). Moreover, the systemic administration of simvastatin did not affect hepatic and renal functions, blood pressure or heart rate. CONCLUSIONS Simvastatin potently inhibits VSMC proliferation in vitro and reduces neointimal formation in a rat model of vascular injury.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2014
Roberta Roncarati; Chiara Viviani Anselmi; Maria Angela Losi; Laura Papa; Elena Cavarretta; Paula A. da Costa Martins; Carla Contaldi; Gloria Saccani Jotti; Anna Franzone; Laura Galastri; Michael V.G. Latronico; Massimo Imbriaco; Giovanni Esposito; Leon J. De Windt; Sandro Betocchi; Gianluigi Condorelli
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper was to determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in myocardial remodeling were differentially expressed in the blood of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients, and whether circulating miRNAs correlated with the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. BACKGROUND miRNAs-small, noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) that regulate gene expression by inhibiting RNA translation-modulate cellular function. Myocardial miRNAs modulate processes such as cardiomyocyte (CM) hypertrophy, excitation-contraction coupling, and apoptosis; non-CM-specific miRNAs regulate myocardial vascularization and fibrosis. Recently, the possibility that circulating miRNAs may be biomarkers of cardiovascular disease has been raised. METHODS Forty-one HCM patients were characterized with conventional transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Peripheral plasma levels of 21 miRNAs were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and were compared with levels in a control group of 41 age- and sex-matched blood donors. RESULTS Twelve miRNAs (miR-27a, -199a-5p, -26a, -145, -133a, -143, -199a-3p, -126-3p, -29a, -155, -30a, and -21) were significantly increased in HCM plasma. However, only 3 miRNAs (miR-199a-5p, -27a, and -29a) correlated with hypertrophy; more importantly, only miR-29a correlated also with fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that cardiac remodeling associated with HCM determines a significant release of miRNAs into the bloodstream: the circulating levels of both cardiac- and non-cardiac-specific miRNAs are significantly increased in the plasma of HCM patients. However, correlation with left ventricular hypertrophy parameters holds true for only a few miRNAs (i.e., miR-199a-5p, -27a, and -29a), whereas only miR-29a is significantly associated with both hypertrophy and fibrosis, identifying it as a potential biomarker for myocardial remodeling assessment in HCM.
Journal of Immunology | 2007
Stefano Indraccolo; Ulrich Pfeffer; Sonia Minuzzo; Giovanni Esposito; Valeria Roni; Susanna Mandruzzato; Nicoletta Ferrari; Luca Anfosso; Raffaella Dell'Eva; Douglas M. Noonan; Luigi Chieco-Bianchi; Adriana Albini; Alberto Amadori
IFNs are highly pleiotropic cytokines also endowed with marked antiangiogenic activity. In this study, the mRNA expression profiles of endothelial cells (EC) exposed in vitro to IFN-α, IFN-β, or IFN-γ were determined. We found that in HUVEC as well as in other EC types 175 genes were up-regulated (>2-fold increase) by IFNs, including genes involved in the host response to RNA viruses, inflammation, and apoptosis. Interestingly, 41 genes showed a >5-fold higher induction by IFN-α in EC compared with human fibroblasts; among them, the gene encoding the angiostatic chemokine CXCL11 was selectively induced by IFN-α in EC along with other genes associated with angiogenesis regulation, including CXCL10, TRAIL, and guanylate-binding protein 1. These transcriptional changes were confirmed and extended by quantitative PCR analysis and ELISA; whereas IFN-α and IFN-β exerted virtually identical effects on transcriptome modulation, a differential gene regulation by type I and type II IFN emerged, especially as far as quantitative aspects were concerned. In vivo, IFN-α-producing tumors overexpressed murine CXCL10 and CXCL11, guanylate-binding protein 1, and TRAIL, with evidence of CXCL11 production by tumor-associated EC. Overall, these findings improve our understanding of the antiangiogenic effects of IFNs by showing that these cytokines trigger an antiangiogenic transcriptional program in EC. Moreover, we suggest that quantitative differences in the magnitude of the transcriptional activation of IFN-responsive genes could form the basis for cell-specific transcriptional signatures.
Circulation Research | 2008
Nicoletta Rizzi; Nian Liu; Carlo Napolitano; Alessandra Nori; Federica Turcato; Barbara Colombi; Silvio Bicciato; Diego Arcelli; Alessandro Spedito; Mario Scelsi; Laura Villani; Giovanni Esposito; Simona Boncompagni; Feliciano Protasi; Pompeo Volpe; Silvia G. Priori
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by life threatening arrhythmias elicited by physical and emotional stress in young individuals. The recessive form of CPVT is associated with mutation in the cardiac calsequestrin gene (CASQ2). We engineered and characterized a homozygous CASQ2R33Q/R33Q mouse model that closely mimics the clinical phenotype of CPVT patients. CASQ2R33Q/R33Q mice develop bidirectional VT on exposure to environmental stress whereas CASQ2R33Q/R33Q myocytes show reduction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, adrenergically mediated delayed (DADs) and early (EADs) afterdepolarizations leading to triggered activity. Furthermore triadin, junctin, and CASQ2-R33Q proteins are significantly decreased in knock-in mice despite normal levels of mRNA, whereas the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), calreticulin, phospholamban, and SERCA2a-ATPase are not changed. Trypsin digestion studies show increased susceptibility to proteolysis of mutant CASQ2. Despite normal histology, CASQ2R33Q/R33Q hearts display ultrastructural changes such as disarray of junctional electron-dense material, referable to CASQ2 polymers, dilatation of junctional SR, yet normal total SR volume. Based on the foregoings, we propose that the phenotype of the CASQ2R33Q/R33Q CPVT mouse model is portrayed by an unexpected set of abnormalities including (1) reduced CASQ2 content, possibly attributable to increased degradation of CASQ2-R33Q, (2) reduction of SR calcium content, (3) dilatation of junctional SR, and (4) impaired clustering of mutant CASQ2.
The Open Environmental Engineering Journal | 2012
Giovanni Esposito; Luigi Frunzo; Flavia Liotta; Antonio Panico; Francesco Pirozzi
Bio-methane potential (BMP) tests are widely used in studies concerning the anaerobic digestion of organic solids. Although they are often criticized to be time consumer, with an average length longer than 30 days, such tests are doubtless easy to be conducted, relatively inexpensive and repeatable. Moreover, BMP tests give significant information about the bio-methanation of specific substrates and provide experimental results essential to calibrate and validate mathematical models. These last two aspects have been handled in this work where the following elements have been de- scribed in detail: i) the methods used to conduct the BMP tests; ii) the cumulative bio-methane curves obtained from three BMP tests, concerning respectively two pure organic substrates (swine manure-SM and greengrocery waste-GW) and an organic substrate obtained by mixing buffalo manure (BM) and maize silage (MS); iii) the procedure used to calibrate a mathematical model proposed by the authors to simulate the anaerobic digestion process; iv) the results of the calibration process. This paper shows that BMP tests are extremely helpful to determine the amount of bio-methane obtainable from different organic solids and under different operational conditions as well as the biodegradability of the investigated sub- strate, the relative specific rate of bio-methanation and the synergic effect of multiple co-digested substrates. Furthermore BMP tests represent an interesting tool for the technical and economical optimization of bio-methane producing plants.
Cardiovascular Research | 2008
Pasquale Gallo; Michael V.G. Latronico; Paolo Gallo; Serena Grimaldi; Francesco Borgia; Matilde Todaro; Philip Jones; Paola Gallinari; Raffaele De Francesco; Gennaro Ciliberto; Christian Steinkühler; Giovanni Esposito; Gianluigi Condorelli
AIMS Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin remodelling via histone acetylation/deacetylation for the control of cardiac gene expression. Specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) can, in fact, play a positive or negative role in determining cardiac myocyte (CM) size. Here, we report on the effect on hypertrophy development of three inhibitors (HDACi) of class I HDACs. METHODS AND RESULTS The compounds were first analysed in vitro by scoring hypertrophy, expression of foetal genes, and apoptosis of neonatal rat CMs stimulated with phenylephrine, an alpha1-adrenergic agonist. This initial screening indicated that a truncated derivative of apicidin with class I HDAC specificity, denoted API-D, had the highest efficacy to toxicity ratio, and was thus selected for further analysis in vivo. Administration of this drug significantly decreased myocardial hypertrophy and foetal gene expression after 1 week of pressure overload induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. After 9 weeks of TAC, when manifest heart failure is encountered, mice treated with API-D presented with significantly improved echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters of cardiac function when compared with untreated TAC-operated mice. CONCLUSION The apicidin derivative, API-D, is capable of reducing hypertrophy and, consequently, the transition to heart failure in mice subjected to TAC. Treatment with this substance, therefore, holds promise as an important therapeutic option for heart failure.