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Thyroid | 2014
Jacqueline Jonklaas; Antonio C. Bianco; Andrew J. Bauer; Kenneth D. Burman; Anne R. Cappola; Francesco S. Celi; David S. Cooper; Brian W. Kim; Robin P. Peeters; M. Sara Rosenthal; Anna M. Sawka
BACKGROUND A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. METHODS Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. RESULTS We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non-levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine-liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile.
Thyroid | 2009
Douglas S. Ross; Danielle R. Litofsky; Kenneth B. Ain; Thomas Bigos; James D. Brierley; David S. Cooper; Bryan R. Haugen; Jacqueline Jonklaas; Paul W. Ladenson; James Magner; Jacob Robbins; Monica C. Skarulis; David L. Steward; Harry R. Maxon; Steven I. Sherman
BACKGROUND Despite very low mortality associated with micropapillary thyroid cancer, locoregional recurrence is common and controversy exists regarding optimal surgical treatment and the role of adjunctive radioiodine. METHODS The National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study Group Registry was analyzed for recurrences in patients with unifocal versus multifocal micropapillary cancer, with or without nodal disease, depending upon the extent of surgery and the use of adjunctive radioiodine. Six hundred eleven patients considered disease-free after initial therapy were followed for 2572 person-years. RESULTS Thirty patients (6.2%) had recurrences detected at a mean 2.8 years after primary treatment. Recurrences did not differ between patients with unifocal and multifocal disease overall; however, among patients who received less than a near-total thyroidectomy (NTT), those with multifocal disease had more recurrences than those with unifocal disease (18% vs. 4%, p = 0.01). Patients with multifocal disease who had a total (T) or NTT trended toward fewer recurrences than those undergoing less than an NTT (6% vs. 18%, p = 0.058). In patients who did not receive radioiodine therapy, recurrence was more common in patients with multifocal disease versus unifocal disease (7% vs. 2%, p = 0.02). However, radioiodine did not reduce recurrences in patients with multifocal disease or patients with positive nodes. Patients with positive nodes had more recurrences than node-negative patients regardless of surgical extent or use of radioiodine. CONCLUSIONS Patients with micropapillary multifocal disease have a reduced risk of recurrence after a T/NTT compared with less surgery. A randomized, controlled trial is necessary and feasible to determine if radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnants is advantageous in patients with intrathyroidal micropapillary cancer.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | 2009
Thien-Giang Bach-Huynh; Bindu Nayak; Jennifer Loh; Steven J. Soldin; Jacqueline Jonklaas
CONTEXT Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. OBJECTIVE The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. DESIGN Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T(4), and total T(3) during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. SETTING The study was conducted in an academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. RESULTS Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 +/- 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 +/- 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 +/- 2.66 mIU/liter). CONCLUSION Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range.
JAMA | 2008
Jacqueline Jonklaas; Bruce L. Davidson; Supna Bhagat; Steven J. Soldin
CONTEXT Thyroidal production of triiodothyronine (T3) is absent in athyreotic patients, leading to the suggestion that T3 deficiency may be unavoidable during levothyroxine (LT4) therapy. However, trials evaluating therapy with combined LT4 and T3 have failed to demonstrate any consistent advantage of combination therapy. OBJECTIVE To determine whether T3 levels in patients treated with LT4 therapy were truly lower than in the same patients with native thyroid function. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A prospective study conducted in the General Clinical Research Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, between January 30, 2004, and June 20, 2007, of 50 euthyroid study participants aged 18 to 65 years who were scheduled for total thyroidectomy for goiter, benign nodular disease, suspected thyroid cancer, or known thyroid cancer. Following thyroidectomy, patients were prescribed LT4. Patients with benign thyroid disease and thyroid cancer were treated to achieve a normal and suppressed serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, respectively. The LT4 dose was adjusted as necessary postoperatively to achieve the desired TSH goal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine [T4]), T3, and TSH levels were measured twice preoperatively and twice postoperatively. RESULTS By the end of the study, there were no significant decreases in T3 concentrations in patients receiving LT4 therapy compared with their prethyroidectomy T3 levels (mean, 127.2 ng/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 119.5-134.9 ng/dL vs 129.3 ng/dL; 95% CI, 121.9-136.7 ng/dL; P = .64). However, free T4 concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with LT(4) therapy (mean, 1.41 ng/dL; 95% CI, 1.33-1.49 ng/dL) compared with their native free T4 levels (1.05 ng/dL; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10 ng/dL; P < .001). Serum TSH values of 4.5 mIU/L or less were achieved in 94% of patients by the end of the study. The T3 concentrations were lower in the subgroup of patients whose therapy had not resulted in a TSH level of 4.5 mIU/L or less (P < .001). CONCLUSION In our study, normal T3 levels were achieved with traditional LT4 therapy alone in patients who had undergone near-total or total thyroidectomy, which suggests that T3 administration is not necessary to maintain serum T3 values at their endogenous prethyroidectomy levels.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | 2012
Jacqueline Jonklaas; G. Nogueras-Gonzalez; M. Munsell; Danielle R. Litofsky; Kenneth B. Ain; S T Bigos; James D. Brierley; David S. Cooper; Bryan R. Haugen; Paul W. Ladenson; James Magner; Jacob Robbins; Douglas S. Ross; Monica C. Skarulis; David L. Steward; Harry R. Maxon; Steven I. Sherman
CONTEXT Thyroid cancer predominately affects women, carries a worse prognosis in older age, and may have higher mortality in men. Superimposed on these observations is the fact that most women have attained menopause by age 55 yr. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine whether men contribute disproportionately to papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) mortality or whether menopause affects PTC prognosis. DESIGN Gender-specific mortality was normalized using age-matched subjects from the U.S. population. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models incorporating gender, age, and National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study Group stage were used to model disease-specific survival (DSS). PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING Patients were followed in a prospective registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The relationships between gender, age, and PTC outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for DSS for women was 0.40 [confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.65]. This female advantage diminished when DSS was adjusted for age at diagnosis and stage with a HR encompassing unity (HR 0.72, CI 0.44-1.19). Additional multivariate models of DSS considering gender, disease stage, and various age groupings showed that the DSS for women diagnosed at under 55 yr was improved over men (HR 0.33, CI 0.13-0.81). However, the HR for DSS increased to become similar to men for women diagnosed at 55-69 yr (HR 1.01, CI 0.42-2.37) and at 70 yr or greater (HR 1.17, CI 0.48-2.85). CONCLUSIONS Although the overall outcome of women with PTC is similar to men, subgroup analysis showed that this composite outcome is composed of two periods with different outcomes. The first period is a period with better outcomes for women than men when the diagnosis occurs at younger than 55 yr; the second is a period with similar outcomes for both women and men diagnosed at ages greater than 55 yr. These data raise the question of whether an older age cutoff would improve current staging systems. We hypothesize that older age modifies the effect of gender on outcomes due to menopause-associated hormonal alterations.
Clinical Chemistry | 2009
Jacqueline Jonklaas; Natasa Kahric-Janicic; Offie P. Soldin; Steven J. Soldin
BACKGROUND Accurate measurement of free thyroid hormones is important for managing thyroid disorders. Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can reliably measure the concentrations of small molecules, including thyroid hormones. Our study was designed to compare free thyroid hormone measurements performed with immunoassay and LC-MS/MS. METHODS We studied the performance of LC-MS/MS in 4 different populations comprising pediatric patients, euthyroid adults, and healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women. The samples obtained from each population numbered 38, 200, 28, and 128, respectively. Free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were documented. RESULTS LC-MS/MS measurement of free thyroid hormones provided better correlation with log-transformed serum TSH in each population and also the populations combined. The correlations between free thyroxine measured by LC-MS/MS and log TSH in the pediatric outpatients and healthy adults were -0.90 and -0.77, respectively. The correlations for immunoassay were -0.82 and -0.48. The correlations between free triiodothyronine measured by LC-MS/MS and TSH for both pediatric and healthy adult populations were -0.72 and -0.68, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Free thyroid hormone concentrations measured by LC-MS/MS correlate to a greater degree with log TSH values compared to concentrations measured by immunoassay. This correlation was maintained across the patient populations we studied and may reflect the accuracy and specificity of LC-MS/MS. The superior ability of LC-MS/MS to enable documentation of the well-known thyroid hormone-TSH relationship supports the use of this measurement technique in a variety of clinical situations.
Steroids | 2007
Shimin Zhang; Jacqueline Jonklaas; Mark Danielsen
Mifepristone is an antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that also has significant agonist activity in some cell types. We examined the partial agonist activity of mifepristone in COS-7 cells transfected with increasing amounts of a glucocorticoid receptor expression vector pmGR. As pmGR levels increased, the response of the reporter, pMTVCAT to dexamethasone increased, consistent with increasing levels of receptor expression; the response to mifepristone also increased but at a higher rate, resulting in increasing mifepristone agonist and decreasing antagonist activity. In contrast, increasing pMTVCAT levels increased CAT activity induced by both dexamethasone and mifepristone, but did not change the relative agonist activity of mifepristone. We also examined the relationship between agonist activity and receptor level in a series of clones of the E8.2.A3 cell line expressing various levels of GR. Again, the relative agonist activity of mifepristone increased as GR increased. This increase was not due to changes in the dose response curves to these two ligands since their EC50 values were independent of receptor levels. These results indicate that the degree of glucocorticoid agonist activity exhibited by mifepristone is dependent on the concentration of GR in the cell. Similar results were obtained with another partial agonist of the GR, progesterone, whereas the complete antagonist ZK98.299 had no agonist activity under any condition. Taken together, these results suggest that the phenomenon of receptor concentration-dependence is a property of partial GR agonists in general.
Steroids | 2007
Jennifer P. Holst; Steven J. Soldin; Rochelle E. Tractenberg; Tiedong Guo; Priya Kundra; Joseph G. Verbalis; Jacqueline Jonklaas
HYPOTHESIS A cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin injection is the standard test for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency. Multiple steroid hormones can now be accurately measured by tandem mass spectrometry in a single sample. The study objective was to determine whether a steroid profile, created by simultaneous measurement of 10 steroid hormones by tandem mass spectrometry, would help determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency. DESIGN A 10-steroid profile was measured by tandem mass spectrometry during the performance of a standard high dose cortrosyn stimulation test. The steroids were measured at baseline, 30, and 60min following synthetic adrenocorticotropin injection. Adrenal insufficiency was defined as a peak cortisol level of less than 20microg/dL. Testing was conducted in the general clinical research center of a university medical center. Normal volunteers, patients suspected of having adrenal insufficiency, and patients with known adrenal insufficiency participated. RESULTS Our results showed that adrenal insufficiency of any cause was adequately diagnosed using the response of 11-deoxycortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, or these analytes combined in a two-steroid profile. A three-steroid profile yielded a test with 100% accuracy for discriminating primary adrenal insufficiency from normal status. Primary adrenal insufficiency was well separated from secondary adrenal insufficiency using only a single aldosterone value. 11-Deoxycortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and a two-steroid profile each provided fair discrimination between secondary adrenal insufficiency and normal status. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that stimulated levels of aldosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and a two- or three-steroid profile provided additional discrimination between states of adrenal sufficiency and insufficiency. It is proposed that a steroid profile measuring cortisol, aldosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone would potentially improve the ability to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency.
Thyroid | 2014
Donald S. A. McLeod; David S. Cooper; Paul W. Ladenson; Kenneth B. Ain; James D. Brierley; Henry G. Fein; Bryan R. Haugen; Jacqueline Jonklaas; James Magner; Douglas S. Ross; Monica C. Skarulis; David L. Steward; Harry R. Maxon; Steven I. Sherman
BACKGROUND Serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration and thyroid autoimmunity may be of prognostic importance in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Preoperative serum TSH level has been associated with higher DTC stage in cross-sectional studies; data are contradictory on the significance of thyroid autoimmunity at the time of diagnosis. OBJECTIVE We sought to assess whether preoperative serum TSH and perioperative antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were associated with thyroid cancer stage and outcome in DTC patients followed by the National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study, a large multicenter thyroid cancer registry. METHODS Patients registered after 1996 with available preoperative serum TSH (n=617; the TSH cohort) or perioperative TgAb status (n=1770; the TgAb cohort) were analyzed for tumor stage, persistent disease, recurrence, and overall survival (OS; median follow-up, 5.5 years). Parametric tests assessed log-transformed TSH, and categorical variables were tested with chi square. Disease-free survival (DFS) and OS was assessed with Cox models. RESULTS Geometric mean serum TSH levels were higher in patients with higher-stage disease (Stage III/IV=1.48 vs. 1.02 mU/L for Stages I/II; p=0.006). The relationship persisted in those aged ≥45 years after adjusting for sex (p=0.01). Gross extrathyroidal extension (p=0.03) and presence of cervical lymph node metastases (p=0.003) were also significantly associated with higher serum TSH. Disease recurrence and all-cause mortality occurred in 37 and 38 TSH cohort patients respectively, which limited the power for survival analysis. Positive TgAb was associated with lower stage on univariate analysis (positive TgAb in 23.4% vs. 17.8% of Stage I/II vs. III/IV patients, respectively; p=0.01), although the relationship lost significance when adjusting for age and sex (p=0.34). Perioperative TgAb was not an independent predictor of DFS (hazard ratio=1.12 [95% confidence interval=0.74-1.69]) or OS (hazard ratio=0.98 [95% confidence interval=0.56-1.72]). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative serum TSH level is associated with higher DTC stage, gross extrathyroidal extension, and neck node metastases. Perioperative TgAb is not an independent predictor of DTC prognosis. A larger cohort is required to assess whether preoperative serum TSH level predicts recurrence or mortality.
Thyroid | 2011
Madhuri Devdhar; Rebecca Drooger; Marieta Pehlivanova; Gurdeep Singh; Jacqueline Jonklaas
BACKGROUND Body weight (BW) and age have been shown to affect the dose of levothyroxine (LT(4)) that results in normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients. Our objective was to determine whether gender, menstrual status, and ideal BW (IBW) also affect the LT(4) dose required to achieve a serum TSH within the normal range. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients being treated for primary hypothyroidism who had TSH values within a normal range. We selected patients aged 18-85 years who were taking LT(4) without any confounding medications, and who had no serious chronic conditions. Their LT(4) doses, referred to here as LT(4) dose requirements, based on both BW and IBW were documented. The relationship between gender, menstrual status, age, serum TSH concentrations, and the degree of overweight on LT(4) dose requirements were determined using multivariate analyses. RESULTS Women were significantly more overweight than men (ratio of BW/IBW was 1.35 for women vs. 1.17 for men, p <0.0001). LT(4) requirements based on BW did not differ by gender when age was included in the model. However, when degree of overweight was also included, men required lower LT(4) doses than both premenopausal women (1.34 μg/kg vs. 1.51 μg/kg, p = 0.038) and menopausal women (1.34 μg/kg vs. 1.49 μg/kg, p = 0.023). When examining IBW using a model incorporating age, men also required lower LT(4) doses than both premenopausal women (1.64 μg/kg vs. 1.92 μg/kg, p = 0.0033) and menopausal women (1.64 μg/kg vs. 1.90 μg/kg, p = 0.0024). Serum TSH concentrations were not significantly different in any of the gender groups. There was no relationship between serum TSH and either age or BW. The initial serum TSH concentration was by design with the normal range, but the concentration within that range was not a significant predictor of the LT(4) replacement dose in any of the models. CONCLUSION In contrast to previous studies suggesting that age affects LT(4) replacement requirements, we found that age-based differences in doses are secondary to differences in BW and gender. In addition, in contrast to prior studies showing that lean body mass, but not gender, affected LT(4) dose, we instead found a significant impact of gender. Gender-based differences in dose requirement only became apparent either when IBW was used to correct for the dose or when degree of overweight was included in the model. Gender differences in LT(4) dose requirement exist, but are masked unless gender-based differences in degree of overweight are also considered.