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Featured researches published by Johanna L. Barclay.
PLOS ONE | 2012
Johanna L. Barclay; Jana Husse; Brid Bode; Nadine Naujokat; Judith Meyer-Kovac; Sebastian M. Schmid; Hendrik Lehnert; Hendrik Oster
Shiftwork is associated with adverse metabolic pathophysiology, and the rising incidence of shiftwork in modern societies is thought to contribute to the worldwide increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but may involve direct physiological effects of nocturnal light exposure, or indirect consequences of perturbed endogenous circadian clocks. This study employs a two-week paradigm in mice to model the early molecular and physiological effects of shiftwork. Two weeks of timed sleep restriction has moderate effects on diurnal activity patterns, feeding behavior, and clock gene regulation in the circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In contrast, microarray analyses reveal global disruption of diurnal liver transcriptome rhythms, enriched for pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and correlating with first indications of altered metabolism. Although altered food timing itself is not sufficient to provoke these effects, stabilizing peripheral clocks by timed food access can restore molecular rhythms and metabolic function under sleep restriction conditions. This study suggests that peripheral circadian desynchrony marks an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with chronic shiftwork. Thus, strengthening the peripheral circadian system by minimizing food intake during night shifts may counteract the adverse physiological consequences frequently observed in human shift workers.
Endocrinology | 2011
Johanna L. Barclay; Caroline N. Nelson; Mayumi Ishikawa; Lauren A. Murray; Linda M. Kerr; Timothy R. McPhee; Elizabeth E. Powell; Michael J. Waters
GH deficiency is known to be clinically associated with a high incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and this can be reversed by GH administration. Here we investigated the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon using engineered male mice lacking different signaling elements of the GH receptor, hepatic stat5a/b(-/-) mice and a mouse hepatoma line. We found deficient GH-dependent signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-5 signaling correlates with steatosis, and through microarray analysis, quantitative PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, identified putative targets of STAT5 signaling responsible for the steatosis seen on a normal diet. These targets were verified with liver-specific stat5a/b deletion in vivo, and in vitro we show that dominant-negative (DN) STAT5 increases lipid uptake in a mouse hepatoma line. Because loss of STAT5 signaling results in elevated STAT1 and STAT3 activity and intracellular lipid accumulation, we have used DN-STAT5a/b, DN-STAT1, constitutively active (CA)-STAT3, or addition of oleate/palmitate in the hepatoma line to assign which of these apply to individual targets in STAT5 signaling deficiency. These findings and published mouse models of steatosis enable us to propose elevated cd36, pparγ, and pgc1α/β expression as primary instigators of the steatosis along with elevated fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and very low-density lipoprotein receptor expression. Decreased fgf21 and insig2 expression may also contribute. In conclusion, despite normal plasma free fatty acids and minimal obesity, absent GH activation leads to steatosis because activated STAT5 prevents hepatic steatosis. These results raise the possibility of low-dose GH treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
American Journal of Physiology-endocrinology and Metabolism | 2013
Johanna L. Barclay; Anton Shostak; Alexei Leliavski; Anthony H. Tsang; Olaf Jöhren; Helge Müller-Fielitz; Dominic Landgraf; Nadine Naujokat; Gijsbertus T. J. van der Horst; Hendrik Oster
Perturbation of circadian rhythmicity in mammals, either by environmental influences such as shiftwork or by genetic manipulation, has been associated with metabolic disturbance and the development of obesity and diabetes. Circadian clocks are based on transcriptional/translational feedback loops, comprising positive and negative components. Whereas the metabolic effects of deletion of the positive arm of the clock gene machinery, as in Clock- or Bmal1-deficient mice, have been well characterized, inactivation of Period genes (Per1-3) as components of the negative arm have more complex, sometimes contradictory effects on energy homeostasis. The CRYPTOCHROMEs are critical interaction partners of PERs, and simultaneous deletion of Cry1 and -2 results in behavioral and molecular circadian arrhythmicity. We show that, when challenged with a high-fat diet, Cry1/2(-/-) mice rapidly gain weight and surpass that of wild-type mice, despite displaying hypophagia. Transcript analysis of white adipose tissue reveals upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, many of which are insulin targets. High-fat diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, as a result of potentiated insulin secretion, coupled with selective insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of Cry1/2(-/-) mice, correlates with increased lipid uptake. Collectively, these data indicate that Cry deficiency results in an increased vulnerability to high-fat diet-induced obesity that might be mediated by increased insulin secretion and lipid storage in adipose tissues.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | 2013
Anthony H. Tsang; Johanna L. Barclay; Henrik Oster
In most species, endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology. Clock disruption has been associated with decreased cognitive performance and increased propensity to develop obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Many hormonal factors show robust diurnal secretion rhythms, some of which are involved in mediating clock output from the brain to peripheral tissues. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of clock-hormone interaction in mammals, the contribution of different tissue oscillators to hormonal regulation, and how changes in circadian timing impinge on endocrine signalling and downstream processes. We further summarize recent findings suggesting that hormonal signals may feed back on circadian regulation and how this crosstalk interferes with physiological and metabolic homeostasis.
Molecular Endocrinology | 2010
Johanna L. Barclay; Linda M. Kerr; Leela Arthur; Jennifer E. Rowland; Caroline N. Nelson; Mayumi Ishikawa; Elisabetta M. d'Aniello; Mary White; Peter G. Noakes; Michael J. Waters
GH is generally believed to signal exclusively through Janus tyrosine kinases (JAK), particularly JAK2, leading to activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT), ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways, resulting in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Here we report the creation of targeted knock-in mice wherein the Box1 motif required for JAK2 activation by the GH receptor (GHR) has been disabled by four Pro/Ala mutations. These mice are unable to activate hepatic JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or Akt in response to GH injection but can activate Src and ERK1/2. Their phenotype is identical to that of the GHR(-/-) mouse, emphasizing the key role of JAK2 in postnatal growth and the minimization of obesity in older males. In particular, they show dysregulation of the IGF-I/IGF-binding protein axis at transcript and protein levels and decreased bone length. Because no gross phenotypic differences were evident between GHR(-/-) and Box1 mutants, we undertook transcript profiling in liver from 4-month-old males. We compared their transcript profiles with our 391-GHR truncated mice, which activate JAK2, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in response to GH but not STAT5a/b. This has allowed us for the first time to identify in vivo Src/ERK-regulated transcripts, JAK2-regulated transcripts, and those regulated by the distal part of the GHR, particularly by STAT5.
Physiological Reports | 2014
Christina Jang; Sandya Jalapu; Moe Thuzar; Phillip W. Law; Susanne Jeavons; Johanna L. Barclay; Ken K. Y. Ho
PET‐CT using 18F‐FDG is employed for detecting brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Alternative methods are needed because of the radiation and cost of PET‐CT imaging. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting human BAT benchmarked to PET‐CT imaging. Seventeen individuals underwent a total of 29 PET‐CT scans, 12 of whom were studied twice, after 2 h of cold stimulation at 19°C, in parallel with measurement of skin temperatures overlying the supraclavicular (SCV) fossa and the lateral upper chest (control), before and after cold stimulation. Of the 29 scans, 20 were BAT positive after cold stimulation. The mean left SCV temperature tended to be higher in the BAT‐positive group before and during cooling. It was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than the temperature of the control area, which fell significantly during cooling in the BAT‐positive (−1.2 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.002) but not in the negative (−0.2 ± 0.4°C) group. The temperature difference (Δtemp) between left SCV and chest increased during cooling in the BAT‐positive (1.2 ± 0.2 to 2.0 ± 0.3°C, P < 0.002) but not in the negative group (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1°C). A Δtemp of 0.9°C conferred a positive predictive value of 85% for SCV BAT, superior to that of SCV temperature. The findings were similar on the right. In conclusion, the Δtemp is significantly and consistently greater in BAT‐positive subjects. The Δtemp quantified by IRT after 2‐h cooling shows promise as a noninvasive convenient technique for studying SCV BAT function.
Progress in Brain Research | 2012
Johanna L. Barclay; Anthony H. Tsang; Henrik Oster
In mammals, circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are regulated by a complex network of cellular molecular oscillators distributed throughout the brain and peripheral tissues. A master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) synchronizes internal time with the external light-dark cycle, thus entraining the overall rhythmicity of the organism. Recent findings have challenged the dominant role of the SCN in physiological regulation and it becomes increasingly evident that close interaction between different central and peripheral clocks is necessary to maintain robust circadian rhythms of physiology and metabolism. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding circadian organization in the SCN and in other central and peripheral tissues. We outline the communication pathways between different tissue clocks and, exemplified by the regulation of glucocorticoid release from the adrenal gland and glucose homeostasis in the blood, characterize the interaction between different clocks in the regulation of physiological processes.
International Journal of Cancer | 2009
Johanna L. Barclay; S. T. Anderson; Michael J. Waters; Jon D. Curlewis
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), as a key regulator of cytokine signaling, has the potential to modulate numerous cellular processes. Its involvement in inflammatory disease is well established, and there is increasing evidence for a role in breast cancer as a regulator of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Here we show that over‐expression of SOCS3 markedly supresses STAT3 expression, and abrogates STAT5 phosphorylation, resulting in decreased cell proliferation in T47D breast cancer cells, and decreased proliferation and anchorage‐independent growth in MCF7 cells. Using T47D cells, we elucidated the signaling pathways and transcription factors involved in SOCS3 expression in response to prolactin, a key mammotropic hormone. Quantitative real time PCR was used to examine SOCS3 mRNA expression, IP/WB was used to examine STAT phosphorylation, luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and gel shift assays allowed evaluation of cis‐elements and trans‐factors regulating SOCS3 expression. We demonstrate that prolactin‐induced SOCS3 expression is STAT‐dependant, predominantly involving STAT5, although STAT1 is also associated with the promoter. In addition, prolactin‐induced SOCS3 promoter activation requires PKA‐stimulated Sp1 binding to the GC‐rich region of the promoter. Finally, we show that PRL‐induced SOCS3 expression can be potentiated by co‐treatment with PGE2. This study demonstrates that SOCS3 acts as an anti‐proliferative agent in breast cancer cells, and highlights the complexity of SOCS3 regulation and crosstalk.
Journal of Endocrinology | 2015
Johanna L. Barclay; Hadiya Agada; Christina Jang; Micheal Ward; Neil Wetzig; Ken K. Y. Ho
Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (P<0.05) expression of UCP1 and OCR of brown adipocytes. These effects were significantly reduced (P<0.05) by dexamethasone. Thus, we show that dexamethasone stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and function of human brown adipocytes but inhibits adrenergic stimulation of the functioning of brown adipocytes. We conclude that GCs exert complex effects on development and function of brown adipocytes. These findings provide strong evidence for an effect of GCs on the biology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushings syndrome.
Journal of Hepatology | 2002
Nina E Saxton; Johanna L. Barclay; Andrew D. Clouston; Jonathan Fawcett
BACKGROUND/AIMS These studies investigated the role of apoptosis following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the liver and the effect of pretreatment with Cyclosporin A. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 30 min of warm ischaemia followed by a period of reperfusion of 6 h. Rats were given olive oil or Cyclosporin A (30 mg/kg p.o.) the day before surgery. Neutrophil numbers were assessed in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of liver. In situ staining of sections using TdT-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labelling was carried out to determine the extent of apoptosis, followed by electron microscopy. Semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the transcript for Fas antigen was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS High levels of apoptosis were observed in I/R injury, which were greatly ameliorated in Cyclosporin A-pretreated groups. PCR analysis indicated a reduction in the level of expression of Fas transcript in Cyclosporin A-treated rats. Histological analysis showed a significant increase in the number of neutrophils infiltrating I/R-injured tissue (62 +/- 10.69, n=16), which was markedly reduced by Cyclosporin A pretreatment (16 +/- 7, n=6, P<0.05). These results indicate a role of parenchymal apoptosis in the pathogenesis of I/R injury, which occurs in association with neutrophil infiltration, both of which can be significantly reduced by Cyclosporin A pretreatment.