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Featured researches published by Thoralf M. Sundt.
Stroke | 1973
Frank W. Sharbrough; Joseph M. Messick; Thoralf M. Sundt
During an 11-month period, 81 endarterectomies under a carefully controlled level of general anesthesia were monitored with continuous electroencephalograms (EEG) and intermittent regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. There was a high correlation between the CBF (milliliter per 100 gm per minute) during carotid occlusion and alterations in the EEG: no EEG change was seen with the flow above 30 ml/100 gm brain per minute, major changes were not seen with a flow between 18 and 30 ml, and changes invariably occurred with a flow below 17 ml. The degree of EEG change reflected the severity of flow reduction but was always reversible with the placement of a shunt. The EEG at the termination of the surgery corresponded with the patients neurological state in that all EEG tracings were normal or unchanged as compared to the preoperative tracing and no neurological worsening occurred in any patients studied. The EEG is a valuable monitoring technique that indicates when a shunt is required and informs the surgeon of the state of cerebral function not only during occlusion but also throughout the entire operative procedure.
Brain Research | 1977
David Bates; Richard M. Weinshilboum; R. Jean Campbell; Thoralf M. Sundt
The effects of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of lesions placed stereotactically in or near the locus coeruleus were studied in 15 lightly anesthetized cats; 5 control cats in which the electrode was placed but no lesion created, and 10 experimental cats in which a lesion was created. The response of CBF to changes in Paco2 and in mean arterial blood pressure was determined by 133Xe-washout studies 10 days after the stereotactic procedures. The sites of the lesions were studied histologically, and their effects on catecholamine concentrations in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus, and parietal cortex were determined by radio-chemical assay. Control animals and those with lesions near, but not in, the locus coeruleus had normal Paco2--CBF response curves and normal catecholamine concentrations in the areas of biopsy. Bilateral destruction of the locus coeruleus was confirmed in 3 animals on histological examination and in these animals there were decreased levels of catecholamines in the areas of assay, higher resting CBFs at normocapnia, and significantly abnormal CBF--Paco2 response curves. The autoregulatory response to changes in perfusion pressure was preserved. Thus, noradrenergic neurons originating in the locus coeruleus may contribute to the control of intraparenchymal cerebral vessels and disturbance of this control may be important in the pathology of cerebral ischemia.
Neurosurgery | 1993
Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan; David G. Piepgras; Thoralf M. Sundt
Twenty-three cases of transitional cavernous aneurysms are presented. Aneurysms of this subgroup (of a total of 118 cases of cavernous sinus aneurysms) arise entirely from within the cavernous sinus but project into the extracavernous intradural subarachnoid space, thus resembling other intracranial aneurysms in their increased risk of rupture. Six aneurysms were small (less than 15 mm), 6 were large (15 to 25 mm), and 11 were giant (more than 25 mm). Thirteen patients (57%) had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, nine patients (39%) had compressive symptoms, and one patient (4%) was asymptomatic. A direct surgical approach was performed successfully in 18 cases (78%), and indirect bypass methods were performed in 5 cases. The overall surgical outcome was excellent in 87% of the patients, with three complications (13%) including one fatality. It is suggested that this subgroup is a different entity from other cavernous or extracavernous aneurysms and should be managed aggressively with direct clipping whenever possible because of the increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. A simplified numerical classification system of clinoidal-region aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (including transitional aneurysms) is also proposed.
Brain Research | 1990
John L. D. Atkinson; Robert E. Anderson; Thoralf M. Sundt
Cerebral capillaries in cats subjected to variations in carbon dioxide tensions were studied using carbon black perfusion fixation. Five animals each were grouped into hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia and 500 cortical, 250 white matter and 250 caudate nucleus capillaries per group were analyzed at 400 x magnification. Capillary diameters were found to change significantly in the cortex (6.1-10.0 microns), white matter (6.5-9.6 microns) and caudate nucleus (6.3-8.8 microns) from hypocapnia to hypercapnia, respectively. These findings suggest that capillary vasomotion occurs and that capillaries are not rigid tubes as previously portrayed.
Brain Research | 1986
Fredric B. Meyer; Philip W. Tally; Robert E. Anderson; Thoralf M. Sundt; Tony L. Yaksh; Frank W. Sharbrough
Nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker with high affinity for central dihydropyridine Ca2+ channels, produced a dose-dependent suppression of electrically induced seizures in the rabbit. Verapamil, a diphenylalkylamine which acts at peripheral Ca2+ channels, was ineffective. Phenytoin was less effective than nimodipine. These results suggest that calcium flux into neurons may be a biochemical precipitant for seizure genesis. Centrally acting calcium channel blockers may prove to be a new class of anticonvulsants.
Stroke | 1971
John D. Michenfelder; Thoralf M. Sundt
Previous studies have shown that occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of the squirrel monkey results in a consistent large infarct; that in the initial two hours after occlusion of the MCA, blood flow in the central area of ischemia continues at a reduced rate (20% to 50% of normal); and that restoration of normal flow within three hours results in a survival rate of 65% without infarction. In this study, cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lactate, and pyruvate concentrations were measured at various time intervals after occlusion of the MCA. ATP decreased slowly during a three-hour period to 30% of normal, and lactate, after an initial rapid accumulation, increased slowly to about eight times normal. This compares to the effects of circulatory arrest which, in the dog, results in a reduction of the ATP level to 25% of normal within four minutes and a reciprocal increase in the lactate level. Because the effects of total cerebral anoxia are potentially reversible prior to four minutes, and, therefore, at an ATP concentration above 25% of normal, the slow rate of ATP depletion observed in the ischemic monkey brain supports the view that a significant period exists after occlusion of a major intracranial vessel wherein the ischemic effects are potentially reversible. Using the methods of this study, future investigations should permit a meaningful evaluation of the relative merits of those measures recommended for the treatment of acute cerebral ischemia.
Stroke | 1975
Robert F. Donley; Thoralf M. Sundt; Robert E. Anderson; Frank W. Sharbrough
Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured (intra-arterial injections of 133Xe) and electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded periodically before, for two hours during, and for one and one-fourth hours after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in 20 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). A CBF-Paco2 response curve for these animals under barbiturate anesthesia was created from CBF values prior to MCA occlusion and during the time a steady state was being achieved. The animals were subdivided into four groups (five monkeys in each) on the basis of Paco2 values: 20, 36, 40, and 60 mm Hg. CBF values from this study were compared to previous results obtained with 35Kr. The phenomenon of “look through” and the importance of recognizing this artifact and its significance in analyzing CBF results in areas of focal ischemia are discussed. The present results were correlated with cerebral ATP and lactate concentrations in ischemic regions determined in previous studies using this preparation at these Paco2 values and at comparable time intervals before, during, and after MCA occlusion. The EEG appears to reflect the state of ischemic brain accurately. However, CBF measured by the 133Xe method can be misleading in regard to the true degree of ischemia resulting from occlusion of an intracranial vessel and cannot be relied on to demonstrate accurately “steal” or “reverse steal” due to changes in Paco2.
Stroke | 1973
Robert F. Donley; Thoralf M. Sundt
The effect of large dosages of dexamethasone on the edema of cerebral ischemia and infarction in the squirrel monkey after temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery is reported. There was no difference between the ten monkeys treated with dexamethasone and the 11 control animals in clinical course, mortality, morbidity, histological appearance, or amount of edema associated with this ischemic lesion. The differences in the electron microscopic and pathophysiological findings of the edema from ischemia secondary to single major vessel occlusion and in the edema from an intracranial mass lesion are reviewed. The possible therapeutic or pharmacological effects of steroids are considered along with available data on lysosomes in the brain. At the present time, there is no justification for the use of large doses of dexamethasone in the treatment of cerebral infarction.
Circulation | 1972
Arthur G. Waltz; Thoralf M. Sundt; John D. Michenfelder
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured during 28 carotid endarterectomies in 25 patients, by injection of 133Xe into the exposed internal carotid artery (ICA). Twenty-three patients had episodic cerebral or retinal ischemia and five had neurologic deficits before operation. Initial CBF values were variable. Increases of PaCo2 caused CBF to increase in four of six patients, to increase slightly in one, and to decrease in one. In each of 19 procedures, CBF decreased during surgical occlusion of the ICA, 11 times to less than 30 ml/100 g/min, but absence of postoperative worsening indicated that decreased ICA blood flow is not a major risk of the procedure; embolization from the site of operation may be a greater threat to the patient. CBF increased after 14 endarterectomies, perhaps due to failure of autoregulation or to reactive hyperemia. Measurements of jugular PVo2 and lactate concentration were of little value.
Stroke | 1971
Shigeaki Kobayashi; Robert W. Hollenhorst; Thoralf M. Sundt
This is a study of 45 patients who underwent angiography and surgery of one or both carotid arteries (56 surgical procedures). All patients had detailed neuro-ophthalmological evaluations including determination of retinal artery pressure (RAP) and scrutiny for emboli in small vessels. Preoperatively, the absolute RAP value has a high correlation with the degree of stenosis of the ipsilateral carotid artery when that stenosis exceeds 80%. The asymmetry of RAP values is greatest when the stenosis is much more severe in one artery than in the other. Both RAP values may show an absolute decrease when the stenosis is severe bilaterally. In these patients, postoperatively there usually is not only an increase in the RAP on the side operated on but also on the side contralateral to the initial procedure. Almost without exception, RAP should be normal after carotid artery surgery. The finding of a subnormal RAP after operation demands immediate investigation.