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European Heart Journal | 2015
Perry M. Elliott; Aris Anastasakis; Michael A. Borger; Martin Borggrefe; Franco Cecchi; Philippe Charron; Albert Hagège; Antoine Lafont; Giuseppe Limongelli; Heiko Mahrholdt; William J. McKenna; Jens Mogensen; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; Stefano Nistri; Petronella G. Pieper; Burkert Pieske; Claudio Rapezzi; Frans H. Rutten; Christoph Tillmanns; Hugh Watkins
2D : two-dimensional 99mTc-DPD : 99mTechnetium-3,3-diphosphono- 1,2-propanodi-carboxylic acid ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme AF : atrial fibrillation AL : amyloid light chain AR : aortic regurgitation ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ATTR : amyloidosis-transthyretin type AV : atrioventricular BiVAD : biventricular assist device BNP : brain natriuretic peptide BPM : Beats per minute CCS : Canadian Cardiovascular Society CFC : cardiofacialcutaneous CHA2DS2-VASc : Congestive Heart failure, hypertension, Age ≥75 (doubled), Diabetes, Stroke (doubled), Vascular disease, Age 65–74, and Sex (female) CMR : cardiac magnetic resonance CRT : cardiac resynchronization therapy CRT-D : cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator CRT-P : Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker CT : computed tomography DC : direct current DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid E/A : ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to mitral peak velocity of late filling (A) E/e’ : ratio of early transmitral flow velocity (E) to early mitral annulus velocity (e’) EACTS : European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction EPS : electrophysiological study ESC : European Society of Cardiology FDA : (US) Food and Drug Administration FHL1 : four and a half LIM domains 1 HAS-BLED : hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly (>65 years), drugs/alcohol concomitantly HCM : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hs-cTnT : high sensitivity cardiac troponin T HTS : high throughput sequencing ICD : implantable cardioverter defibrillator ILR : implantable loop recorder INR : international normalized ratio IUD : intrauterine device LA : left atrium LAMP-2 : lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 LBBB : left bundle branch block LEOPARD : Lentigines, ECG abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensory-neural Deafness LGE : late gadolinium enhancement LV : left ventricular LVAD : left ventricular assist device LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVOTO : left ventricular outlow tract obstruction MADIT-RIT : Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial—Reduce Inappropriate Therapy MAPK : mitogen activated protein kinase MELAS : mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes MERFF : myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres MRA : mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist MYBPC3 : myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type MYH7 : myosin-7 (s-myosin heavy chain) MYL3 : myosin light chain 3 NOAC : new oral anticoagulants NSVT : non-sustained ventricular tachycardia NT-proBNP : N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide NYHA : New York Heart Association OAC : oral anticoagulants o.d. : omni die (every day) PC-CMR : phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance PDE5 : phosphodiesterase type 5 PET : positron emission tomography PRKAG2 : gamma-2 sub-unit of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase RAAS : renin angiotensin aldosterone system RV : right ventricular SAM : systolic anterior motion SCD : sudden cardiac death SAA : septal alcohol ablation S-ICD™ : Subcutaneous lead implantable cardioverter defibrillator SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography SSFP : steady-state free precession SVT : supraventricular tachycardia TOE : transoesophageal echocardiography TNNI3 : troponin I, cardiac muscle TNNT2 : troponin T, cardiac muscle TPM1 : tropomyosin alpha-1 chain TTE : transthoracic echocardiography TTR : transthyretin VF : ventricular fibrillation VKA : vitamin K antagonist VT : ventricular tachycardia WHO : World Health Organization Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence at the time of the writing process, on a particular issue with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient, with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk-benefit-ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help the health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate. A great number of Guidelines have been issued in recent years by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) as well as by other societies and organisations. Because of the impact on clinical practice, quality criteria for the development of guidelines have been established in order to make all decisions transparent to the user. The recommendations for formulating and issuing ESC Guidelines can be found on the ESC website (http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/about/Pages/rules-writing.aspx). ESC Guidelines represent the official position of the ESC on a given topic and are regularly updated. Members of this Task Force were selected by the ESC to represent professionals involved with the medical care of patients with this pathology. Selected experts in the field undertook a comprehensive review of the published evidence for management (including diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation) of a given condition according to ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) policy. A critical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was performed including assessment of the risk-benefit-ratio. Estimates of expected health outcomes for larger populations were included, where data exist. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular management options were weighed and graded according to predefined scales, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2 . The experts of …
The Lancet | 2000
Godfrina McKoy; Nikos Protonotarios; Andrew H. Crosby; Adalena Tsatsopoulou; Aris Anastasakis; Aman S. Coonar; Mark Norman; Christina Baboonian; Steve Jeffery; William J. McKenna
BACKGROUND Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an autosomal dominant heart muscle disorder that causes arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden death. Previously we mapped the genetic locus for the triad of autosomal recessive ARVC, palmoplantar keratoderma, and woolly hair (Naxos disease) to chromosome 17q21, in which the gene for plakoglobin is encoded. This protein is a key component of desmosomes and adherens junctions, and is important for the tight adhesion of many cell types, including those in the heart and skin. METHODS We studied 19 individuals with Naxos disease, as well as unaffected family members and unrelated individuals from the neighbouring Greek islands of Naxos and Milos. Gene sequence was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR from RNA isolated from the skin of an affected individual and mutations in other cases were confirmed by restriction-enzyme analysis. FINDINGS A homozygous 2 base pair deletion in the plakoglobin gene was identified only in the 19 affected individuals. This deletion caused a frameshift and premature termination of the protein, which was shown by western blot analysis. 29 clinically unaffected family members were heterozygous for the mutation; 20 unrelated individuals from Naxos and 43 autosomal dominant ARVC probands were homozygous for the normal allele. INTERPRETATION The finding of a deletion in plakoglobin in ARVC suggests that the proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion play an important part in maintaining myocyte integrity, and when junctions are disrupted, cell death, and fibrofatty replacement occur. Therefore, the discovery of a mutation in a protein with functions in maintaining cell junction integrity has important implications for other dominant forms of ARVC, related cardiomyopathies, and other cutaneous diseases.
European Heart Journal | 2010
Domenico Corrado; Antonio Pelliccia; Hein Heidbuchel; Sanjay Sharma; Mark S. Link; Cristina Basso; Alessandro Biffi; Gianfranco Buja; Pietro Delise; Ihor Gussac; Aris Anastasakis; Mats Börjesson; Hans Halvor Bjørnstad; François Carré; Asterios Deligiannis; Dorian Dugmore; Robert Fagard; Jan Hoogsteen; Klaus Peter Mellwig; Nicole Panhuyzen-Goedkoop; Erik Solberg; Luc Vanhees; Jonathan A. Drezner; N.A. Mark Estes; Sabino Iliceto; Barry J. Maron; Roberto Peidro; Peter J. Schwartz; Ricardo Stein; Gaetano Thiene
Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is frequently associated with physiological ECG changes. Abnormalities, however, may be detected which represent expression of an underlying heart disease that puts the athlete at risk of arrhythmic cardiac arrest during sports. It is mandatory that ECG changes resulting from intensive physical training are distinguished from abnormalities which reflect a potential cardiac pathology. The present article represents the consensus statement of an international panel of cardiologists and sports medical physicians with expertise in the fields of electrocardiography, imaging, inherited cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular pathology, and management of young competitive athletes. The document provides cardiologists and sports medical physicians with a modern approach to correct interpretation of 12-lead ECG in the athlete and emerging understanding of incomplete penetrance of inherited cardiovascular disease. When the ECG of an athlete is examined, the main objective is to distinguish between physiological patterns that should cause no alarm and those that require action and/or additional testing to exclude (or confirm) the suspicion of an underlying cardiovascular condition carrying the risk of sudden death during sports. The aim of the present position paper is to provide a framework for this distinction. For every ECG abnormality, the document focuses on the ensuing clinical work-up required for differential diagnosis and clinical assessment. When appropriate the referral options for risk stratification and cardiovascular management of the athlete are briefly addressed.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2001
Nikos Protonotarios; Adalena Tsatsopoulou; Aris Anastasakis; Elias Sevdalis; Godfrina McKoy; Kostas Stratos; Kostas Gatzoulis; Kostas Tentolouris; Chara Spiliopoulou; Demos Panagiotakos; William J. McKenna; Paulos Toutouzas
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine the genotype-phenotype relation with respect to penetrance, age and severity of expression, disease progression and prognosis in a recessively inherited arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). BACKGROUND Naxos disease is a recessively inherited ARVC caused by a mutation in the gene encoding plakoglobin (cell adhesion protein) in which the cardiac phenotype is associated with palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair. METHODS Twelve families with Naxos disease underwent cardiac and molecular genetic investigation. Serial cardiac assessment with annual resting 12-lead and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and two-dimensional echocardiography was performed during 1 to 16 years, median 7 +/- 6 years in all 78 surviving members. RESULTS Twenty-eight surviving members were homozygous and 40 were heterozygous for the mutation. All adults who were homozygous (n = 26) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ARVC, the youngest by the age of 13 years. In eight who were heterozygous, minor ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities were observed. Of the 26 subjects who were affected homozygotes, 92% showed ECG abnormalities, 92% ventricular arrhythmias, 100% right ventricular structural alterations and 27% left ventricular involvement. During follow-up (10 +/- 6 years), 16 (62%) developed structural progression, 12 (46%) arrhythmic events and 7 (27%) heart failure. The annual disease-related and sudden death mortality was 3% and 2.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive ARVC caused by a mutation in plakoglobin was 100% penetrant by adolescence. Affected subjects who were homozygous experienced progressive disease with adverse prognosis. A minority of subjects who were heterozygous showed minor ECG/echocardiographic changes, but clinically significant disease did not develop.
Circulation | 2015
Domenico Corrado; Thomas Wichter; Mark S. Link; Richard N.W. Hauer; Francis E. Marchlinski; Aris Anastasakis; Barbara Bauce; Cristina Basso; Corinna Brunckhorst; Adalena Tsatsopoulou; Harikrishna Tandri; Matthias Paul; Christian Schmied; Antonio Pelliccia; Firat Duru; Nikos Protonotarios; N.A. Mark Estes; William J. McKenna; Gaetano Thiene; Frank I. Marcus; Hugh Calkins
Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology | 2006
Antonio Pelliccia; Domenico Corrado; Hans Halvor Bjørnstad; Nicole Panhuyzen-Goedkoop; Axel Urhausen; François Carré; Aris Anastasakis; Luc Vanhees; Eloisa Arbustini; Silvia G. Priori
Several relatively uncommon, but important cardiovascular diseases are associated with increased risk for acute cardiac events during exercise (including sudden death), such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and myo-pericarditis. Practising cardiologists are frequently asked to advise on exercise programmes and sport participation in young individuals with these cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, many asymptomatic (or mildly symptomatic) patients with cardiomyopathies aspire to a physically active lifestyle to take advantage of the many documented benefits of exercise. While recommendations dictating the participation in competitive sport for athletes with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis have recently been published as a consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology, no European guidelines have addressed the possible participation of patients with cardiomyopathies in recreational and amateur sport activities. The present document is intended to offer a comprehensive overview to practising cardiologists and sport physicians of the recommendations governing safe participation in different types of competitive sport, as well as the participation in a variety of recreational physical activities and amateur sports in individuals with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis. These recommendations, based largely on the experience and insights of the expert panel appointed by the European Society of Cardiology, include the most up-to-date information concerning regular exercise and sports activity in patients with cardiomyopathies and myo-pericarditis.
Kardiologia Polska | 2014
Perry M. Elliott; Aris Anastasakis; Michael A. Borger; Martin Borggrefe; Franco Cecchi; Phillippe Charron; Albert Hagège; Antoine Lafont; Giuseppe Limongelli; Heiko Mahrholdt; Wiliam J. McKenna; Jens Mogensen; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; Stefano Nistri; Petronella G. Pieper; Burkert Pieske; Claudio Rapezzi; Frans H. Rutten; Christoph Tillmanns; Hugh Watkins
Authors/Task Force Members: Perry M. Elliott* (Chairperson) (UK), Aris Anastasakis (Greece), Michael A. Borger (Germany), Martin Borggrefe (Germany), Franco Cecchi (Italy), Philippe Charron (France), Albert Alain Hagege (France), Antoine Lafont (France), Giuseppe Limongelli (Italy), Heiko Mahrholdt (Germany), William J. McKenna (UK), Jens Mogensen (Denmark), Petros Nihoyannopoulos (UK), Stefano Nistri (Italy), Petronella G. Pieper (Netherlands), Burkert Pieske (Austria), Claudio Rapezzi (Italy), Frans H. Rutten (Netherlands), Christoph Tillmanns (Germany), and Hugh Watkins (UK).
American Journal of Hypertension | 2010
Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Despina Kardara; Aris Anastasakis; Katerina Baou; Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios; Dimitris Tousoulis; Christodoulos Stefanadis
BACKGROUND Regular aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Marathon running is an aerobic and extremely vigorous exercise. Arterial stiffness and wave reflections are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the acute effect of marathon race on aortic stiffness and wave reflections, as well as possible chronic alterations of these indexes in marathon runners. METHODS We studied 49 marathon runners (age 38 +/- 9 years) and 46 recreationally active control subjects (age 37 +/- 5 years). To investigate the acute effect of marathon race, a subgroup of 20 runners was evaluated after the race as well. Aortic stiffness was evaluated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wave reflections with augmentation index (AIx). RESULTS Marathon runners had significantly higher systolic, diastolic, pulse (both aortic and brachial), and mean pressures compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). Marathon runners had significantly higher PWV (6.89 m/s vs. 6.33 m/s, P < 0.01), whereas there was no difference in AIx and AIx corrected for heart rate ([email protected]) compared to controls (13.8% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.985 and 8.2% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.340, respectively). Marathon race caused a significant fall in both AIx (12.2% vs. -5.8%, P < 0.001) and [email protected] (7.0% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.01), whereas PWV did not change significantly (6.66 m/s vs. 6.74 m/s, P = 0.690). Aortic and brachial systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures were also decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A significant fall in wave reflections was observed after marathon race, whereas aortic stiffness was not altered. Moreover, marathon runners have increased aortic stiffness and pressures, whereas wave reflections indexes do not differ compared to controls.
European Heart Journal | 2011
Nikos Protonotarios; Aris Anastasakis; Loizos Antoniades; Gregory Chlouverakis; Petros Syrris; Cristina Basso; Angeliki Asimaki; Artemisia Theopistou; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Gaetano Thiene; William J. McKenna; Adalena Tsatsopoulou
Aims To evaluate arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) in affected families with desmosome mutations on the basis of the recently revised Task Force Criteria (TFC). Methods and results One hundred and three consecutive carriers of pathogenic desmosome mutations and 102 mutation-negative relatives belonging to 22 families with dominant and 14 families with recessive ARVC/D were evaluated according to the original and revised TFC. Serial cardiac assessment with 12-lead, signal-averaged, and 24 h ambulatory ECG and two-dimensional echocardiography was performed. Clinical events and outcome were prospectively analysed up to 24 years (median 4 years). With the revised criteria, 16 carriers were newly diagnosed on the basis of ECG abnormalities in 100%, ventricular arrhythmias in 79%, and functional/structural alterations in 31%, increasing diagnostic sensitivity from 57 to 71% (P = 0.001). Task Force Criteria specificity improved from 92 to 99% (P = 0.016). In dominant mutation carriers, penetrance changed significantly (61 vs. 42%, P = 0.001); no changes were observed in recessive homozygous carriers (97 vs. 97%, P = 1.00). Affected carriers according to the revised TFC (n = 73) had 12-lead ECG abnormalities in 96%, ventricular arrhythmias in 91%, and functional/structural alterations fulfilling echocardiographic criteria in 76%. Cumulative and event-free survival did not differ significantly between dominant and recessive affected carriers, being at 78.6 vs. 76 and 51.7 vs. 55.4%, respectively, by the age of 40 years. Conclusion Revised TFC increased diagnostic sensitivity particularly in dominant ARVC/D. Serial family evaluation may rely on electrocardiography which seems to have the best diagnostic utility particularly in early disease that is not detectable by two-dimensional echocardiography.
Cardiovascular Research | 2011
Katja Gehmlich; Petros Syrris; Emma Peskett; Alison Evans; Elisabeth Ehler; Angeliki Asimaki; Aris Anastasakis; Adalena Tsatsopoulou; Apostolos-Ilias Vouliotis; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Jeffrey E. Saffitz; Nikos Protonotarios; William J. McKenna
Aims Recent immunohistochemical studies observed the loss of plakoglobin (PG) from the intercalated disc (ID) as a hallmark of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), suggesting a final common pathway for this disease. However, the underlying molecular processes are poorly understood. Methods and results We have identified novel mutations in the desmosomal cadherin desmocollin 2 (DSC2 R203C, L229X, T275M, and G371fsX378). The two missense mutations (DSC2 R203C and T275M) have been functionally characterized, together with a previously reported frameshift variant (DSC2 A897fsX900), to examine their pathogenic potential towards PGs functions at the ID. The three mutant proteins were transiently expressed in various cellular systems and assayed for expression, processing, localization, and binding to other desmosomal components in comparison to wild-type DSC2a protein. The two missense mutations showed defects in proteolytic cleavage, a process which is required for the functional activation of mature cadherins. In both cases, this is thought to cause a reduction of functional DSC2 at the desmosomes in cardiac cells. In contrast, the frameshift variant was incorporated into cardiac desmosomes; however, it showed reduced binding to PG. Conclusion Despite different modes of action, for all three variants, the reduced ability to provide a ligand for PG at the desmosomes was observed. This is in agreement with the reduced intensity of PG at these structures observed in ARVC patients.