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European Heart Journal | 2008
Kenneth Dickstein; Alain Cohen-Solal; G. Filippatos; John J.V. McMurray; P. Ponikowski; Philip A. Poole-Wilson; Anna Strömberg; D. J. Van Veldhuisen; Dan Atar; Arno W. Hoes; Andre Keren; Alexandre Mebazaa; Markku S. Nieminen; Silvia G. Priori; Karl Swedberg; Alec Vahanian; John Camm; R. De Caterina; Veronica Dean; Christian Funck-Brentano; Irene Hellemans; Steen Dalby Kristensen; Keith McGregor; Udo Sechtem; Sigmund Silber; Michal Tendera; Petr Widimsky; J.L. Zamorano; Angelo Auricchio; Jeroen J. Bax
Authors/Task Force Members: Kenneth Dickstein (Chairperson) (Norway)*, Alain Cohen-Solal (France), Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece), John J.V. McMurray (UK), Piotr Ponikowski (Poland), Philip Alexander Poole-Wilson (UK), Anna Strömberg (Sweden), Dirk J. van Veldhuisen (The Netherlands), Dan Atar (Norway), Arno W. Hoes (The Netherlands), Andre Keren (Israel), Alexandre Mebazaa (France), Markku Nieminen (Finland), Silvia Giuliana Priori (Italy), Karl Swedberg (Sweden)
European Journal of Heart Failure | 2016
Piotr Ponikowski; Adriaan A. Voors; Stefan D. Anker; Héctor Bueno; John G.F. Cleland; Andrew J.S. Coats; Volkmar Falk; José Ramón González-Juanatey; Veli Pekka Harjola; Ewa A. Jankowska; Mariell Jessup; Cecilia Linde; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; John Parissis; Burkert Pieske; Jillian P. Riley; Giuseppe Rosano; Luis M. Ruilope; Frank Ruschitzka; Frans H. Rutten; Peter van der Meer; Gerasimos Filippatos; John J.V. McMurray; Victor Aboyans; Stephan Achenbach; Stefan Agewall; Nawwar Al-Attar; John Atherton; Johann Bauersachs; A. John Camm
Authors/Task Force Members: Piotr Ponikowski* (Chairperson) (Poland), Adriaan A. Voors* (Co-Chairperson) (The Netherlands), Stefan D. Anker (Germany), Héctor Bueno (Spain), John G. F. Cleland (UK), Andrew J. S. Coats (UK), Volkmar Falk (Germany), José Ramón González-Juanatey (Spain), Veli-Pekka Harjola (Finland), Ewa A. Jankowska (Poland), Mariell Jessup (USA), Cecilia Linde (Sweden), Petros Nihoyannopoulos (UK), John T. Parissis (Greece), Burkert Pieske (Germany), Jillian P. Riley (UK), Giuseppe M. C. Rosano (UK/Italy), Luis M. Ruilope (Spain), Frank Ruschitzka (Switzerland), Frans H. Rutten (The Netherlands), Peter van der Meer (The Netherlands)
European Journal of Heart Failure | 2012
John J.V. McMurray; Stamatis Adamopoulos; Stefan D. Anker; Angelo Auricchio; Michael Böhm; Kenneth Dickstein; Volkmar Falk; Gerasimos Filippatos; Miguel A. Gomez-Sanchez; Tiny Jaarsma; Lars Køber; Gregory Y.H. Lip; Aldo P. Maggioni; Alexander Parkhomenko; Burkert Pieske; Bogdan A. Popescu; Per K. Rønnevik; Frans H. Rutten; Juerg Schwitter; Petar Seferovic; Janina Stępińska; Pedro T. Trindade; Adriaan A. Voors; Faiez Zannad; Andreas M. Zeiher; Jeroen J. Bax; Helmut Baumgartner; Claudio Ceconi; Veronica Dean; Christi Deaton
Authors/Task Force Members: John J.V. McMurray (Chairperson) (UK)*, Stamatis Adamopoulos (Greece), Stefan D. Anker (Germany), Angelo Auricchio (Switzerland), Michael Bohm (Germany), Kenneth Dickstein (Norway), Volkmar Falk (Switzerland), Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece), Cândida Fonseca (Portugal), Miguel Angel Gomez-Sanchez (Spain), Tiny Jaarsma (Sweden), Lars Kober (Denmark), Gregory Y.H. Lip (UK), Aldo Pietro Maggioni (Italy), Alexander Parkhomenko (Ukraine), Burkert M. Pieske (Austria), Bogdan A. Popescu (Romania), Per K. Ronnevik (Norway), Frans H. Rutten (The Netherlands), Juerg Schwitter (Switzerland), Petar Seferovic (Serbia), Janina Stepinska (Poland), Pedro T. Trindade (Switzerland), Adriaan A. Voors (The Netherlands), Faiez Zannad (France), Andreas Zeiher (Germany).
European Heart Journal | 2013
Michele Brignole; Angelo Auricchio; Gonzalo Barón-Esquivias; Pierre Bordachar; Giuseppe Boriani; Ole-A. Breithardt; John G.F. Cleland; Jean-Claude Deharo; Victoria Delgado; Perry M. Elliott; Bulent Gorenek; Carsten W. Israel; Christophe Leclercq; Cecilia Linde; Lluis Mont; Luigi Padeletti; Richard Sutton; Panos E. Vardas; Jose Luis Zamorano; Stephan Achenbach; Helmut Baumgartner; Jeroen J. Bax; Héctor Bueno; Veronica Dean; Christi Deaton; Çetin Erol; Robert Fagard; Roberto Ferrari; David Hasdai; Arno W. Hoes
2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy : The Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA)
European Heart Journal | 2015
Perry M. Elliott; Aris Anastasakis; Michael A. Borger; Martin Borggrefe; Franco Cecchi; Philippe Charron; Albert Hagège; Antoine Lafont; Giuseppe Limongelli; Heiko Mahrholdt; William J. McKenna; Jens Mogensen; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; Stefano Nistri; Petronella G. Pieper; Burkert Pieske; Claudio Rapezzi; Frans H. Rutten; Christoph Tillmanns; Hugh Watkins
2D : two-dimensional 99mTc-DPD : 99mTechnetium-3,3-diphosphono- 1,2-propanodi-carboxylic acid ACE : angiotensin-converting enzyme AF : atrial fibrillation AL : amyloid light chain AR : aortic regurgitation ARB : angiotensin receptor blocker ATTR : amyloidosis-transthyretin type AV : atrioventricular BiVAD : biventricular assist device BNP : brain natriuretic peptide BPM : Beats per minute CCS : Canadian Cardiovascular Society CFC : cardiofacialcutaneous CHA2DS2-VASc : Congestive Heart failure, hypertension, Age ≥75 (doubled), Diabetes, Stroke (doubled), Vascular disease, Age 65–74, and Sex (female) CMR : cardiac magnetic resonance CRT : cardiac resynchronization therapy CRT-D : cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator CRT-P : Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker CT : computed tomography DC : direct current DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid E/A : ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to mitral peak velocity of late filling (A) E/e’ : ratio of early transmitral flow velocity (E) to early mitral annulus velocity (e’) EACTS : European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery ECG : electrocardiogram EF : ejection fraction EPS : electrophysiological study ESC : European Society of Cardiology FDA : (US) Food and Drug Administration FHL1 : four and a half LIM domains 1 HAS-BLED : hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly (>65 years), drugs/alcohol concomitantly HCM : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy hs-cTnT : high sensitivity cardiac troponin T HTS : high throughput sequencing ICD : implantable cardioverter defibrillator ILR : implantable loop recorder INR : international normalized ratio IUD : intrauterine device LA : left atrium LAMP-2 : lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 LBBB : left bundle branch block LEOPARD : Lentigines, ECG abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, and sensory-neural Deafness LGE : late gadolinium enhancement LV : left ventricular LVAD : left ventricular assist device LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy LVOTO : left ventricular outlow tract obstruction MADIT-RIT : Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial—Reduce Inappropriate Therapy MAPK : mitogen activated protein kinase MELAS : mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes MERFF : myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres MRA : mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist MYBPC3 : myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type MYH7 : myosin-7 (s-myosin heavy chain) MYL3 : myosin light chain 3 NOAC : new oral anticoagulants NSVT : non-sustained ventricular tachycardia NT-proBNP : N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide NYHA : New York Heart Association OAC : oral anticoagulants o.d. : omni die (every day) PC-CMR : phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance PDE5 : phosphodiesterase type 5 PET : positron emission tomography PRKAG2 : gamma-2 sub-unit of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase RAAS : renin angiotensin aldosterone system RV : right ventricular SAM : systolic anterior motion SCD : sudden cardiac death SAA : septal alcohol ablation S-ICD™ : Subcutaneous lead implantable cardioverter defibrillator SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography SSFP : steady-state free precession SVT : supraventricular tachycardia TOE : transoesophageal echocardiography TNNI3 : troponin I, cardiac muscle TNNT2 : troponin T, cardiac muscle TPM1 : tropomyosin alpha-1 chain TTE : transthoracic echocardiography TTR : transthyretin VF : ventricular fibrillation VKA : vitamin K antagonist VT : ventricular tachycardia WHO : World Health Organization Guidelines summarize and evaluate all available evidence at the time of the writing process, on a particular issue with the aim of assisting health professionals in selecting the best management strategies for an individual patient, with a given condition, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk-benefit-ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines and recommendations should help the health professionals to make decisions in their daily practice. However, the final decisions concerning an individual patient must be made by the responsible health professional(s) in consultation with the patient and caregiver as appropriate. A great number of Guidelines have been issued in recent years by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) as well as by other societies and organisations. Because of the impact on clinical practice, quality criteria for the development of guidelines have been established in order to make all decisions transparent to the user. The recommendations for formulating and issuing ESC Guidelines can be found on the ESC website (http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/about/Pages/rules-writing.aspx). ESC Guidelines represent the official position of the ESC on a given topic and are regularly updated. Members of this Task Force were selected by the ESC to represent professionals involved with the medical care of patients with this pathology. Selected experts in the field undertook a comprehensive review of the published evidence for management (including diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation) of a given condition according to ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) policy. A critical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was performed including assessment of the risk-benefit-ratio. Estimates of expected health outcomes for larger populations were included, where data exist. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular management options were weighed and graded according to predefined scales, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2 . The experts of …
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2000
Perry M. Elliott; Jan Poloniecki; Shaughan Dickie; Sanjay Sharma; Lorenzo Monserrat; Amanda Varnava; Niall Mahon; William J. McKenna
OBJECTIVES We sought to identify patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) at high risk of sudden death (SD). BACKGROUND Relatively low mortality rates in HCM make conventional analysis of multiple clinical risk markers for SD problematic. This study used a referral center registry to investigate a smaller number of generally accepted noninvasive risk markers. METHODS We studied 368 patients (14 to 65 years old, 239 males) with HCM. There were five variables: nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT), syncope, exercise blood pressure response (BPR), family history of sudden death (FHSD) and left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT). RESULTS During follow-up (3.6+/-2.5 years [range 2 days to 9.6 years]), 36 patients (9.8%) died, 22 of them suddenly. Two patients received heart transplants. The six-year SD-free survival rate was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 87% to 95%). In the Cox model, there was a significant pairwise interaction between FHSD and syncope (p = 0.01), and these were subsequently considered together. The multivariate SD risk ratios (with 95% CIs) were 1.8 for BPR (0.7 to 4.4) (p = 0.22); 5.3 for FHSD and syncope (1.9 to 14.9) (p = 0.002); 1.9 for NSVT (0.7 to 5.0) (p = 0.18) and 2.9 for LVWT (1.1 to 7.1) (p = 0.03). Patients with no risk factors (n = 203) had an estimated six-year SD-free survival rate of 95% (95% CI 91% to 99%). The corresponding six-year estimates (with 95% CIs) for one (n = 122), two (n = 36) and three (n = 7) risk factors were 93% (87% to 99%), 82% (67% to 96%) and 36% (0% to 75%), respectively. Patients with two or more risk factors had a lower six-year SD survival rate (95% CI) compared with patients with one or no risk factors (72% [56% to 88%] vs. 94% [91% to 98%]) (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that patients with multiple risk factors have a substantially increased risk of SD sufficient to warrant consideration for prophylactic therapy.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2003
James C. Moon; William J. McKenna; Jane McCrohon; Perry M. Elliott; Gillian C. Smith; Dudley J. Pennell
OBJECTIVES We sought to assess whether hyperenhancement by gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) occurs in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and correlates with the risk of heart failure and sudden death. BACKGROUND The myocardial interstitium is abnormal in HCM at post-mortem. Focally increased interstitial myocardial space appears as hyperenhancement with gadolinium CMR. METHODS In a blinded, prospective study, HCM patients were selected for the presence (n = 23) or absence (n = 30) of an increased clinical risk of sudden death and/or progressive adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Gadolinium-enhanced CMR was performed. RESULTS Myocardial hyperenhancement was found in 42 patients (79%), affecting 10.9% (range 0% to 48%) of the LV mass. There was a greater extent of hyperenhancement in patients with progressive disease (28.5% vs. 8.7%, p < 0.001) and in patients with two or more risk factors for sudden death (15.7% vs. 8.6%, p = 0.02). Improved discrimination was seen in patients >40 years old (29.6% vs. 6.7%, p < 0.001) for progressive disease and for patients <40 years old for risk factors for sudden death (15.7% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). Patients with diffuse rather than confluent enhancement had two or more risk factors for sudden death (87% vs. 33%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Gadolinium CMR reveals myocardial hyperenhancement in HCM. The extent of hyperenhancement is associated with progressive ventricular dilation and markers of sudden death.
Circulation | 2010
Andrew S. Flett; Martin Hayward; Michael Ashworth; Michael S. Hansen; Andrew M. Taylor; Perry M. Elliott; Christopher G.A. McGregor; James C. Moon
Background— Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is a final end point in most cardiac diseases. It is missed by the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) late gadolinium enhancement technique. Currently, quantifying diffuse myocardial fibrosis requires invasive biopsy, with inherent risk and sampling error. We have developed a robust and noninvasive technique, equilibrium contrast CMR (EQ–CMR) to quantify diffuse fibrosis and have validated it against the current gold standard of surgical myocardial biopsy. Methods and Results— The 3 principles of EQ–CMR are a bolus of extracellular gadolinium contrast followed by continuous infusion to achieve equilibrium; a blood sample to measure blood volume of distribution (1−hematocrit); and CMR to measure pre- and postequilibrium T1 (with heart rate correction). The myocardial volume of distribution is calculated, reflecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Clinical validation occurred in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis or myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=18 and n=8, respectively). Surgical biopsies were analyzed for picrosirius red fibrosis quantification on histology. The mean histological fibrosis was 20.5±11% in aortic stenosis and 17.1±7.4% in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. EQ–CMR correlated strongly with biopsy histological fibrosis: aortic stenosis, r2=0.86, Kendall Tau coefficient (T)=0.71, P<0.001; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, r2=0.62, T=0.52, P=0.08; combined r2=0.80, T=0.67, P<0.001. Conclusions— We have developed and validated a new technique, EQ–CMR, to measure diffuse myocardial fibrosis as an add-on to a standard CMR scan, which allows for the noninvasive quantification of the diffuse fibrosis burden in myocardial diseases.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2010
Rory O'Hanlon; Agata Grasso; Michael Roughton; James C. Moon; Susan K. Clark; Ricardo Wage; Jessica Webb; Meghana Kulkarni; Dana Dawson; Leena Sulaibeekh; Badri Chandrasekaran; Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci; Ferdinando Pasquale; Martin R. Cowie; William J. McKenna; Mary N. Sheppard; Perry M. Elliott; Dudley J. Pennell; Sanjay Prasad
OBJECTIVES We investigated the significance of fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the prediction of major clinical events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). BACKGROUND The role of myocardial fibrosis in the prediction of sudden death and heart failure in HCM is unclear with a lack of prospective data. METHODS We assessed the presence and amount of myocardial fibrosis in HCM patients and prospectively followed them for the development of morbidity and mortality in patients over 3.1 +/- 1.7 years. RESULTS Of 217 consecutive HCM patients, 136 (63%) showed fibrosis. Thirty-four of the 136 patients (25%) in the fibrosis group but only 6 of 81 (7.4%) patients without fibrosis reached the combined primary end point of cardiovascular death, unplanned cardiovascular admission, sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.4, p = 0.006). In the fibrosis group, overall risk increased with the extent of fibrosis (HR: 1.18/5% increase, p = 0.008). The risk of unplanned heart failure admissions, deterioration to New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, or heart failure-related death was greater in the fibrosis group (HR: 2.5, p = 0.021), and this risk increased as the extent of fibrosis increased (HR: 1.16/5% increase, p = 0.017). All relationships remained significant after multivariate analysis. The extent of fibrosis and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia were univariate predictors for arrhythmic end points (sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge, sudden cardiac death) (HR: 1.30, p = 0.014). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia remained an independent predictor of arrhythmic end points after multivariate analysis, but the extent of fibrosis did not. CONCLUSIONS In patients with HCM, myocardial fibrosis as measured by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse outcome. (The Prognostic Significance of Fibrosis Detection in Cardiomyopathy; NCT00930735).
European Heart Journal | 2013
Alida L.P. Caforio; Sabine Pankuweit; Eloisa Arbustini; Cristina Basso; Juan Gimeno-Blanes; Stephan B. Felix; Michael Fu; Tiina Heliö; Stephane Heymans; Roland Jahns; Karin Klingel; Ales Linhart; Bernhard Maisch; William J. McKenna; Jens Mogensen; Yigal M. Pinto; Arsen D. Ristić; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Hubert Seggewiss; Luigi Tavazzi; Gaetano Thiene; Ali Yilmaz; Philippe Charron; Perry M. Elliott
In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its distinct biopsy-proven pathogenetic forms. The aims are to bridge the gap between clinical and tissue-based diagnosis, to improve management and provide a common reference point for future registries and multicentre randomised controlled trials of aetiology-driven treatment in inflammatory heart muscle disease.