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The New England Journal of Medicine | 1995
Luciano Gattinoni; Luca Brazzi; Paolo Pelosi; Roberto Latini; Gianni Tognoni; Antonio Pesenti; Roberto Fumagalli
Background Hemodynamic therapy to raise the cardiac index and oxygen delivery to supranormal levels may improve outcomes in critically ill patients. We studied whether increasing the cardiac index to a supranormal level (cardiac-index group) or increasing mixed venous oxygen saturation to a normal level (oxygen-saturation group) would decrease morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients, as compared with a control group in which the target was a normal cardiac index. Methods A total of 10,726 patients in 56 intensive care units were screened, among whom 762 patients belonging to predefined diagnostic categories with acute physiology scores of 11 or higher were randomly assigned to the three groups (252 to the control group, 253 to the cardiac-index group, and 257 to the oxygen-saturation group). Results The hemodynamic targets were reached by 94.3 percent of the control group, 44.9 percent of the cardiac-index group, and 66.7 percent of the oxygen-saturation group (P<0.001). Mortality was 48.4, ...
Circulation | 1999
Robert S. McKelvie; Salim Yusuf; D. Pericak; Alvaro Avezum; R. J. Burns; J. Probstfield; Ross T. Tsuyuki; Michel White; Jean-Lucien Rouleau; Roberto Latini; Aldo P. Maggioni; James B. Young; Janice Pogue
BACKGROUND We investigated the effects of candesartan (an angiotensin II antagonist) alone, enalapril alone, and their combination on exercise tolerance, ventricular function, quality of life (QOL), neurohormone levels, and tolerability in congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS Seven hundred sixty-eight patients in New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA-FC) II to IV with ejection fraction (EF) <0.40 and a 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) <500 m received either candesartan (4, 8, or 16 mg), candesartan (4 or 8 mg) plus 20 mg of enalapril, or 20 mg of enalapril for 43 weeks. There were no differences among groups with regard to 6MWD, NYHA-FC, or QOL. EF increased (P=NS) more with candesartan-plus-enalapril therapy (0.025+/-0.004) than with candesartan alone (0.015+/-0.004) or enalapril alone(0.015+/-0.005). End-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes increased less with combination therapy (EDV 8+/-4 mL; ESV 1+/-4 mL; P<0.01) than with candesartan alone (EDV 27+/-4 mL; ESV 18+/-3 mL) or enalapril alone (EDV 23+/-7 mL; ESV 14+/-6 mL). Blood pressure decreased with combination therapy (6+/-1/4+/-1 mm Hg) compared with candesartan or enalapril alone (P<0.05). Aldosterone decreased (P<0.05) with combination therapy (23.2+/-5.3 pg/mL) at 17 but not 43 weeks compared with candesartan (0.7+/-7.8 pg/mL) or enalapril (-0.8+/-11. 3 pg/mL). Brain natriuretic peptide decreased with combination therapy (5.8+/-2.7 pmol/L; P<0.01) compared with candesartan (4. 4+/-3.8 pmol/L) and enalapril alone (4.0+/-5.0 pmol/L). CONCLUSIONS Candesartan alone was as effective, safe, and tolerable as enalapril. The combination of candesartan and enalapril was more beneficial for preventing left ventricular remodeling than either candesartan or enalapril alone.
Circulation | 2003
Inder S. Anand; Lloyd D. Fisher; Yann Tong Chiang; Roberto Latini; Serge Masson; Aldo P. Maggioni; Robert Glazer; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
Background—Neurohormones are considered markers of heart failure progression. We examined whether changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and norepinephrine (NE) over time are associated with corresponding changes in mortality and morbidity in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial. Methods and Results—Plasma BNP and NE were measured before randomization and during follow-up in ≈4300 patients in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial. The relation between baseline BNP and NE and all-cause mortality and first morbid event (M&M) was analyzed in subgroups, with values above and below the median, and by quartiles. The change and percent change from baseline to 4 and 12 months in BNP and NE were also analyzed by quartiles for subsequent M&M. Risk ratios for M&M were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model. Risk ratio of M&M for patients with baseline BNP or NE above the median was significantly higher than that for patients with values below the median. Baseline BNP and NE in quartiles also showed a quartile-dependent increase in M&M. BNP had a stronger association with M&M than NE. Patients with the greatest percent decrease in BNP and NE from baseline to 4 and 12 months had the lowest whereas patients with greatest percent increase in BNP and NE had the highest M&M. Conclusions—Not only are plasma BNP and NE important predictors of heart failure M&M, but changes in these neurohormones over time are associated with corresponding changes in M&M. These data further reinforce their role as significant surrogate markers in HF and underscore the importance of including their measurement in HF trials.
Circulation | 2007
Roberto Latini; Serge Masson; Inder S. Anand; Emil Missov; Marjorie Carlson; Tarcisio Vago; Laura Angelici; Simona Barlera; Giovanni Parrinello; Aldo P. Maggioni; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
Background— Circulating cardiac troponin T, a marker of cardiomyocyte injury, predicts adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) but is detectable in only a small fraction of those with chronic stable HF. We assessed the prognostic value of circulating cardiac troponin T in patients with stable chronic HF with a traditional (cTnT) and a new precommercial highly sensitive assay (hsTnT). Methods and Results— Plasma troponin T was measured in 4053 patients with chronic HF enrolled in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT). Troponin T was detectable in 10.4% of the population with the cTnT assay (detection limit ≤0.01 ng/mL) compared with 92.0% with the new hsTnT assay (≤0.001 ng/mL). Patients with cTnT elevation or with hsTnT above the median (0.012 ng/mL) had more severe HF and worse outcome. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for clinical risk factors, cTnT was associated with death (780 events; hazard ratio=2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.72 to 2.52; P<0.0001) and first hospitalization for HF (655 events; hazard ratio=1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.93; P<0.0001). HsTnT was associated with the risk of death in unadjusted analysis for deciles of concentrations and in multivariable models (hazard ratio=1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.07 for increments of 0.01 ng/mL; P<0.0001). Addition of hsTnT to well-calibrated models adjusted for clinical risk factors, with or without brain natriuretic peptide, significantly improved prognostic discrimination (C-index, P<0.0001 for both outcomes). Conclusions— In this large population of patients with HF, detectable cTnT predicts adverse outcomes in chronic HF. By the highly sensitive assay, troponin T retains a prognostic value at previously undetectable concentrations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | 2003
Laura Calvillo; Roberto Latini; Jan Kajstura; Annarosa Leri; Piero Anversa; Pietro Ghezzi; Monica Salio; Anthony Cerami; Michael Brines
Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified for its critical hormonal role in promoting erythrocyte survival and differentiation, is a member of the large and diverse cytokine superfamily. Recent studies have identified multiple paracrine/autocrine functions of EPO that coordinate local responses to injury by maintaining vascular autoregulation and attenuating both primary (apoptotic) and secondary (inflammatory) causes of cell death. Experimental evidence also supports a role for EPO in repair and regeneration after brain and spinal cord injury, including the recruitment of stem cells into the region of damage. Tissue expression of the EPO receptor is widespread, especially during development, and includes the heart. However, it is currently unknown as to whether EPO plays a physiological function in adult myocardial tissue. We have assessed the potential protective role of EPO in vitro with adult rat cardiomyocytes, and in vivo in a rat model of myocardial infarction with reperfusion. The results show that EPO markedly prevents the apoptosis of cultured adult rat myocardiocytes subjected to 28 h of hypoxia (≈3% normal oxygen). Additional studies employing a rat model of coronary ischemia–reperfusion showed that the administration of recombinant human EPO (5,000 units/kg of body weight; i.p. daily for 7 days) reduces cardiomyocyte loss by ≈50%, an extent sufficient to normalize hemodynamic function within 1 week after reperfusion. These observations not only suggest a potential therapeutic role for recombinant human EPO in the treatment of myocardial ischemia and infarction by preventing apoptosis and attenuating postinfarct deterioration in hemodynamic function, but also predict that EPO is likely a tissue-protective cytokine in other organs as well.
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2009
Gissi-Af Investigators; Marcello Disertori; Roberto Latini; Barlera S; Maria Grazia Franzosi; Lidia Staszewsky; Maggioni Ap; Lucci D; Di Pasquale G; Gianni Tognoni
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and no current therapy is ideal for control of this condition. Experimental studies suggest that angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs) can influence atrial remodeling, and some clinical studies suggest that they may prevent atrial fibrillation. METHODS We conducted a large, randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to test whether the ARB valsartan could reduce the recurrence of atrial fibrillation. We enrolled patients who were in sinus rhythm but had had either two or more documented episodes of atrial fibrillation in the previous 6 months or successful cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in the previous 2 weeks. To be eligible, patients also had to have underlying cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or left atrial enlargement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive valsartan or placebo. The two primary end points were the time to a first recurrence of atrial fibrillation and the proportion of patients who had more than one recurrence of atrial fibrillation over the course of 1 year. RESULTS A total of 1442 patients were enrolled in the study. Atrial fibrillation recurred in 371 of the 722 patients (51.4%) in the valsartan group, as compared with 375 of 720 (52.1%) in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97; 96% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.14; P=0.73). More than one episode of atrial fibrillation occurred in 194 of 722 patients (26.9%) in the valsartan group and in 201 of 720 (27.9%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.64 to 1.23; P=0.34). The results were similar in all predefined subgroups of patients, including those who were not receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with valsartan was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of recurrent atrial fibrillation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00376272.)
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2014
Pietro Caironi; Gianni Tognoni; Serge Masson; Roberto Fumagalli; Antonio Pesenti; Marilena Romero; Caterina Fanizza; Luisa Caspani; Stefano Faenza; Giacomo Grasselli; Gaetano Iapichino; Massimo Antonelli; Vieri Parrini; Gilberto Fiore; Roberto Latini; Luciano Gattinoni; Abstr Act
BACKGROUND Although previous studies have suggested the potential advantages of albumin administration in patients with severe sepsis, its efficacy has not been fully established. METHODS In this multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 1818 patients with severe sepsis, in 100 intensive care units (ICUs), to receive either 20% albumin and crystalloid solution or crystalloid solution alone. In the albumin group, the target serum albumin concentration was 30 g per liter or more until discharge from the ICU or 28 days after randomization. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were death from any cause at 90 days, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and the degree of dysfunction, and length of stay in the ICU and the hospital. RESULTS During the first 7 days, patients in the albumin group, as compared with those in the crystalloid group, had a higher mean arterial pressure (P=0.03) and lower net fluid balance (P<0.001). The total daily amount of administered fluid did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.10). At 28 days, 285 of 895 patients (31.8%) in the albumin group and 288 of 900 (32.0%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk in the albumin group, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.14; P=0.94). At 90 days, 365 of 888 patients (41.1%) in the albumin group and 389 of 893 (43.6%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29). No significant differences in other secondary outcomes were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with severe sepsis, albumin replacement in addition to crystalloids, as compared with crystalloids alone, did not improve the rate of survival at 28 and 90 days. (Funded by the Italian Medicines Agency; ALBIOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00707122.).
Circulation-heart Failure | 2008
John J.V. McMurray; Bertram Pitt; Roberto Latini; Aldo P. Maggioni; Scott D. Solomon; Deborah L. Keefe; Jessica Ford; Anil Verma; James Lewsey
Background—Loss of negative feedback inhibition of renin release during chronic treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor leads to a compensatory rise in renin secretion and downstream components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) cascade. This may overcome ACE inhibition but should be blocked by a direct renin inhibitor. We studied the effects of adding the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren to an ACE inhibitor in patients with heart failure. Methods and Results—Patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart failure, current or past history of hypertension, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration >100 pg/mL who had been treated with an ACE inhibitor (or angiotensin receptor blocker) and β-blocker were randomized to 3 months of treatment with placebo (n=146) or aliskiren 150 mg/d (n=156). The primary efficacy outcome was the between-treatment difference in N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP). Patients’ mean age was 68 years, mean ejection fraction was 31%, and mean±SD systolic blood pressure was 129±17.4 mm Hg. Sixty-two percent of the patients were in New York Heart Association functional class II, and 33% were taking an aldosterone antagonist. Plasma NT-proBNP rose by 762±6123 pg/mL with placebo and fell by 244±2025 pg/mL with aliskiren (P=0.0106). BNP and urinary (but not plasma) aldosterone were also reduced by aliskiren. Clinically important differences in blood pressure and biochemistry were not seen between aliskiren and placebo. Conclusions—Addition of aliskiren to an ACE inhibitor (or angiotensin receptor blocker) and β-blocker had favorable neurohumoral effects in heart failure and appeared to be well tolerated.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | 2009
Ariela Benigni; Daniela Corna; Carla Zoja; Aurelio Sonzogni; Roberto Latini; Monica Salio; Sara Conti; Daniela Rottoli; Lorena Longaretti; Paola Cassis; Marina Morigi; Thomas M. Coffman; Giuseppe Remuzzi
The renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the etiology of hypertension and the pathophysiology of cardiac and renal diseases in humans. Ang II is the central product of this system and is involved in regulating immune responses, inflammation, cell growth, and proliferation by acting through Ang II type 1 receptors (AT1 and AT2). Here, we show that targeted disruption of the Agtr1a gene that encodes AT1A results in marked prolongation of life span in mice. Agtr1a-/- mice developed less cardiac and vascular injury, and multiple organs from these mice displayed less oxidative damage than wild-type mice. The longevity phenotype was associated with an increased number of mitochondria and upregulation of the prosurvival genes nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) and sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) in the kidney. In cultured tubular epithelial cells, Ang II downregulated Sirt3 mRNA, and this effect was inhibited by an AT1 antagonist. These results demonstrate that disruption of AT1 promotes longevity in mice, possibly through the attenuation of oxidative stress and overexpression of prosurvival genes, and suggests that the Ang II/AT1 pathway may be targeted to influence life span in mammals.
Circulation | 2005
Inder S. Anand; Roberto Latini; Viorel G. Florea; Michael A. Kuskowski; Thomas S. Rector; Serge Masson; Stefano Signorini; Paolo Mocarelli; Allen Hester; Robert Glazer; Jay N. Cohn
Background—The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in heart failure is not well studied. We assessed the prognostic value of CRP in patients randomized in Val-HeFT (Valsartan Heart Failure Trial) and studied changes in CRP that were associated with valsartan. Methods and Results—Characteristics of patients with baseline CRP levels above and below the median value were compared. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the relationship of CRP to mortality and morbidity. Interactions were tested to determine whether differences in CRP changes from baseline to 4 and 12 months between groups randomly assigned to valsartan or placebo depended on baseline ACE inhibitor use. Median plasma CRP was 3.23 mg/L (interquartile range 1.42 to 7.56 mg/L), which is higher than in the general population. Patients with CRP above the median had features of more severe heart failure than those with CRP levels below the median. The cumulative likelihood of death and first morbid event increased with increasing quartile of CRP. Relative to the lowest CRP quartile, the risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9) and first morbid event (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84) was increased in the highest CRP quartile in multivariable models. CRP added incremental prognostic information to that provided by brain natriuretic peptide alone. CRP did not change significantly over time in the placebo group; however, after 12 months, valsartan was associated with a decrease in CRP in patients not receiving ACE inhibitors but not in those receiving ACE inhibitors at 12 months. Conclusions—CRP is increased in heart failure. Higher levels are associated with features of more severe heart failure and are independently associated with mortality and morbidity. The ability of treatments to reduce CRP levels and the prognostic importance of reducing CRP require further study.