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Circulation | 2003
Inder S. Anand; Lloyd D. Fisher; Yann Tong Chiang; Roberto Latini; Serge Masson; Aldo P. Maggioni; Robert Glazer; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
Background—Neurohormones are considered markers of heart failure progression. We examined whether changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and norepinephrine (NE) over time are associated with corresponding changes in mortality and morbidity in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial. Methods and Results—Plasma BNP and NE were measured before randomization and during follow-up in ≈4300 patients in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial. The relation between baseline BNP and NE and all-cause mortality and first morbid event (M&M) was analyzed in subgroups, with values above and below the median, and by quartiles. The change and percent change from baseline to 4 and 12 months in BNP and NE were also analyzed by quartiles for subsequent M&M. Risk ratios for M&M were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model. Risk ratio of M&M for patients with baseline BNP or NE above the median was significantly higher than that for patients with values below the median. Baseline BNP and NE in quartiles also showed a quartile-dependent increase in M&M. BNP had a stronger association with M&M than NE. Patients with the greatest percent decrease in BNP and NE from baseline to 4 and 12 months had the lowest whereas patients with greatest percent increase in BNP and NE had the highest M&M. Conclusions—Not only are plasma BNP and NE important predictors of heart failure M&M, but changes in these neurohormones over time are associated with corresponding changes in M&M. These data further reinforce their role as significant surrogate markers in HF and underscore the importance of including their measurement in HF trials.
Circulation | 2007
Roberto Latini; Serge Masson; Inder S. Anand; Emil Missov; Marjorie Carlson; Tarcisio Vago; Laura Angelici; Simona Barlera; Giovanni Parrinello; Aldo P. Maggioni; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
Background— Circulating cardiac troponin T, a marker of cardiomyocyte injury, predicts adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF) but is detectable in only a small fraction of those with chronic stable HF. We assessed the prognostic value of circulating cardiac troponin T in patients with stable chronic HF with a traditional (cTnT) and a new precommercial highly sensitive assay (hsTnT). Methods and Results— Plasma troponin T was measured in 4053 patients with chronic HF enrolled in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT). Troponin T was detectable in 10.4% of the population with the cTnT assay (detection limit ≤0.01 ng/mL) compared with 92.0% with the new hsTnT assay (≤0.001 ng/mL). Patients with cTnT elevation or with hsTnT above the median (0.012 ng/mL) had more severe HF and worse outcome. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for clinical risk factors, cTnT was associated with death (780 events; hazard ratio=2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.72 to 2.52; P<0.0001) and first hospitalization for HF (655 events; hazard ratio=1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.93; P<0.0001). HsTnT was associated with the risk of death in unadjusted analysis for deciles of concentrations and in multivariable models (hazard ratio=1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.07 for increments of 0.01 ng/mL; P<0.0001). Addition of hsTnT to well-calibrated models adjusted for clinical risk factors, with or without brain natriuretic peptide, significantly improved prognostic discrimination (C-index, P<0.0001 for both outcomes). Conclusions— In this large population of patients with HF, detectable cTnT predicts adverse outcomes in chronic HF. By the highly sensitive assay, troponin T retains a prognostic value at previously undetectable concentrations.
The New England Journal of Medicine | 2014
Pietro Caironi; Gianni Tognoni; Serge Masson; Roberto Fumagalli; Antonio Pesenti; Marilena Romero; Caterina Fanizza; Luisa Caspani; Stefano Faenza; Giacomo Grasselli; Gaetano Iapichino; Massimo Antonelli; Vieri Parrini; Gilberto Fiore; Roberto Latini; Luciano Gattinoni; Abstr Act
BACKGROUND Although previous studies have suggested the potential advantages of albumin administration in patients with severe sepsis, its efficacy has not been fully established. METHODS In this multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 1818 patients with severe sepsis, in 100 intensive care units (ICUs), to receive either 20% albumin and crystalloid solution or crystalloid solution alone. In the albumin group, the target serum albumin concentration was 30 g per liter or more until discharge from the ICU or 28 days after randomization. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were death from any cause at 90 days, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and the degree of dysfunction, and length of stay in the ICU and the hospital. RESULTS During the first 7 days, patients in the albumin group, as compared with those in the crystalloid group, had a higher mean arterial pressure (P=0.03) and lower net fluid balance (P<0.001). The total daily amount of administered fluid did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.10). At 28 days, 285 of 895 patients (31.8%) in the albumin group and 288 of 900 (32.0%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk in the albumin group, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.14; P=0.94). At 90 days, 365 of 888 patients (41.1%) in the albumin group and 389 of 893 (43.6%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29). No significant differences in other secondary outcomes were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with severe sepsis, albumin replacement in addition to crystalloids, as compared with crystalloids alone, did not improve the rate of survival at 28 and 90 days. (Funded by the Italian Medicines Agency; ALBIOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00707122.).
Circulation | 2005
Inder S. Anand; Roberto Latini; Viorel G. Florea; Michael A. Kuskowski; Thomas S. Rector; Serge Masson; Stefano Signorini; Paolo Mocarelli; Allen Hester; Robert Glazer; Jay N. Cohn
Background—The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in heart failure is not well studied. We assessed the prognostic value of CRP in patients randomized in Val-HeFT (Valsartan Heart Failure Trial) and studied changes in CRP that were associated with valsartan. Methods and Results—Characteristics of patients with baseline CRP levels above and below the median value were compared. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the relationship of CRP to mortality and morbidity. Interactions were tested to determine whether differences in CRP changes from baseline to 4 and 12 months between groups randomly assigned to valsartan or placebo depended on baseline ACE inhibitor use. Median plasma CRP was 3.23 mg/L (interquartile range 1.42 to 7.56 mg/L), which is higher than in the general population. Patients with CRP above the median had features of more severe heart failure than those with CRP levels below the median. The cumulative likelihood of death and first morbid event increased with increasing quartile of CRP. Relative to the lowest CRP quartile, the risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9) and first morbid event (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84) was increased in the highest CRP quartile in multivariable models. CRP added incremental prognostic information to that provided by brain natriuretic peptide alone. CRP did not change significantly over time in the placebo group; however, after 12 months, valsartan was associated with a decrease in CRP in patients not receiving ACE inhibitors but not in those receiving ACE inhibitors at 12 months. Conclusions—CRP is increased in heart failure. Higher levels are associated with features of more severe heart failure and are independently associated with mortality and morbidity. The ability of treatments to reduce CRP levels and the prognostic importance of reducing CRP require further study.
Circulation | 2002
Roberto Latini; Serge Masson; Inder S. Anand; Dianne Judd; Aldo P. Maggioni; Yann Tong Chiang; Maurizio Bevilacqua; Monica Salio; Paola Cardano; Peter H J M Dunselman; Nicolaas J. Holwerda; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
Background—Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and norepinephrine (NE) are strongly related to severity of and are independent predictors of outcome in heart failure. The long-term effects of angiotensin receptor blockers on BNP and NE in heart failure patients are not known. Methods and Results—Both BNP and NE were measured in 4284 patients randomized to valsartan or placebo in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) at baseline and 4, 12, and 24 months after randomization. The effects of valsartan were tested by ANCOVA, controlling for baseline values and concomitant ACE inhibitors and/or &bgr;-blockers. BNP and NE concentrations were similar at baseline in the 2 groups and were decreased by valsartan starting at 4 months and up to 24 months. BNP increased over time in the placebo group. At the end point, least-squares mean (±SEM) BNP increased from baseline by 23±5 pg/mL in the placebo group (n=1979) but decreased by 21±5 pg/mL (n=1940) in the valsartan group (P <0.0001). NE increased by 41±6 pg/mL (n=1979) and 12±6 pg/mL (n=1941) for placebo and valsartan, respectively (P =0.0003). Concomitant therapy with both ACE inhibitors and &bgr;-blockers significantly reduced the effect of valsartan on BNP but not on NE (P for interaction=0.0223 and 0.2289, respectively). Conclusions—In Val-HeFT, the largest neurohormone study in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure, BNP and NE rose over time in the placebo group. Valsartan caused sustained reduction in BNP and attenuated the increase in NE over the course of the study. These neurohormone effects of valsartan are consistent with the clinical benefits reported in Val-HeFT.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2008
Serge Masson; Roberto Latini; Inder S. Anand; Simona Barlera; Laura Angelici; Tarcisio Vago; Gianni Tognoni; Jay N. Cohn
OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate the association between changes over time of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) expressed in different ways and outcome in patients with stable and chronic heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND Although previous studies examined the prognostic value of repeated determinations of BNP in HF, there are only limited data on the clinical utility of serial measurements of the inactive peptide NT-proBNP in a large population of ambulatory patients with chronic HF with sufficient follow-up time. METHODS The NT-proBNP was measured at randomization and after 4 months in 1,742 patients enrolled in the placebo arm of Val-HeFT (Valsartan Heart Failure Trial). Changes in NT-proBNP concentrations over 4 months were expressed as absolute change from baseline, percent relative changes, or categorical changes across a threshold value and related to subsequent mortality. RESULTS A single determination of NT-proBNP (area under the curve at 4 months: 0.702, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.669 to 0.735) showed a higher prognostic discrimination than continuous changes of concentrations, expressed either as absolute (0.592, 95% CI: 0.549 to 0.634) or relative changes (0.602, 95% CI: 0.566 to 0.639). A Cox proportional hazards model showed that stratification of patients into 4 categories according to NT-proBNP levels at 2 time points 4 months apart with respect to a threshold concentration provided prognostic information in patients with chronic HF beyond that of a single determination. CONCLUSIONS Serial determinations of NT-proBNP concentration and classification into few categories of changes according to threshold levels may be a superior strategy for risk stratification of patients with chronic and stable HF.
European Heart Journal | 2011
Kevin Damman; Serge Masson; Hans L. Hillege; Aldo P. Maggioni; Adriaan A. Voors; C. Opasich; Dirk J. van Veldhuisen; Laura Montagna; Franco Cosmi; Gianni Tognoni; Luigi Tavazzi; Roberto Latini
AIMS Both reduced glomerular filtration and increased urinary albumin excretion independently determine outcome in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). However, tubulo-interstitial injury might indicate renal damage, even in the presence of normal glomerular filtration. We studied the relationship between tubular damage, glomerular filtration, urinary albumin excretion, and outcome in HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS In 2130 patients participating in the GISSI-HF trial, we measured urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and three urinary markers of tubular damage: N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). We assessed the relationship between the individual tubular damage markers and the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalizations. Mean age was 67 ± 11 years, and 21% were female. Urinary NAG 13.7 (7.8-22) U/gCr, KIM-1 1939 (671-3871) ng/gCr, and NGAL 36 (14-94) µg/gCr were markedly elevated above normal levels. All individual tubular markers were independently associated with the combined endpoint: NAG: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.36; P< 0.001, KIM-1 HR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24; P= 0.018 and NGAL HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20; P= 0.042; all per log standard deviation increase). Even in patients with a normal eGFR, increased tubular markers were related to a poorer outcome. The combination of impaired eGFR, increased UACR, and high NAG was associated with a HR of 3.00; 95% CI, 2.29-3.95; P< 0.001, compared with those without these abnormalities. CONCLUSION Tubular damage is related to a poor clinical outcome in HF patients even when eGFR is normal.
European Journal of Heart Failure | 2010
Serge Masson; Roberto Latini; Emanuele Carbonieri; Luciano Moretti; Maria Grazia Rossi; Santo Ciricugno; Valentina Milani; Roberto Marchioli; Joachim Struck; Andreas Bergmann; Aldo P. Maggioni; Gianni Tognoni; Luigi Tavazzi
Though various neurohormonal systems are concurrently activated during heart failure (HF), their biological effectors are not always easy to measure due to their short life in vivo, instability in biological samples, or very low concentrations. We measured the plasma concentrations of four stable precursor fragments of neurohormonal systems in patients with chronic HF and evaluated their relationship with outcome.
European Journal of Heart Failure | 2009
Alessandro Boccanelli; Gian Francesco Mureddu; G. Cacciatore; Francesco Clemenza; Andrea Di Lenarda; Antonello Gavazzi; Maurizio Porcu; Roberto Latini; Donata Lucci; Aldo P. Maggioni; Serge Masson; M. Vanasia; Giovanni de Simone
To test whether canrenone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, improves left ventricular (LV) remodelling in NYHA class II heart failure (HF). Aldosterone receptor antagonists improve outcome in severe HF, but no information is available in NYHA class II.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | 2002
Serge Masson; Tarcisio Vago; Gabriella Baldi; Monica Salio; Noeleen De Angelis; Enrico Nicolis; Aldo P. Maggioni; Roberto Latini; Guido Norbiato; Maurizio Bevilacqua
Abstract It is not clear whether brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) is superior as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in cardiac diseases. Here, we compare the clinical correlations of both peptides in a population of 92 ambulatory patients with heart failure, using a well-established immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for BNP and an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for NT-proBNP. The analytical correlation between the two peptides was satisfactory over a wide range of concentrations (1–686 pM for BNP) with the equation: NT-proBNP = 3.48 × BNP–19 and a correlation coefficient r2=0.94. In addition, the concentration of both peptides increased in a similar fashion according to the severity of the disease New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, etiology) and age; for instance, the ratios between median levels measured in NYHA class III vs. class II patients were comparable for BNP (383 vs. 16 pM, ratio 24) and NT-proBNP (1306 vs. 57 pM, ratio 23). We conclude that N-terminal proBNP, as assayed in the present study, correlates equally to BNP with clinical variables in patients with heart