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European Heart Journal | 2008
Kenneth Dickstein; Alain Cohen-Solal; G. Filippatos; John J.V. McMurray; P. Ponikowski; Philip A. Poole-Wilson; Anna Strömberg; D. J. Van Veldhuisen; Dan Atar; Arno W. Hoes; Andre Keren; Alexandre Mebazaa; Markku S. Nieminen; Silvia G. Priori; Karl Swedberg; Alec Vahanian; John Camm; R. De Caterina; Veronica Dean; Christian Funck-Brentano; Irene Hellemans; Steen Dalby Kristensen; Keith McGregor; Udo Sechtem; Sigmund Silber; Michal Tendera; Petr Widimsky; J.L. Zamorano; Angelo Auricchio; Jeroen J. Bax
Authors/Task Force Members: Kenneth Dickstein (Chairperson) (Norway)*, Alain Cohen-Solal (France), Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece), John J.V. McMurray (UK), Piotr Ponikowski (Poland), Philip Alexander Poole-Wilson (UK), Anna Strömberg (Sweden), Dirk J. van Veldhuisen (The Netherlands), Dan Atar (Norway), Arno W. Hoes (The Netherlands), Andre Keren (Israel), Alexandre Mebazaa (France), Markku Nieminen (Finland), Silvia Giuliana Priori (Italy), Karl Swedberg (Sweden)
Circulation | 2008
Eugene S. Chung; Angel R. Leon; Luigi Tavazzi; Jing Ping Sun; Petros Nihoyannopoulos; William T. Abraham; Stefano Ghio; Christophe Leclercq; Jeroen J. Bax; C.M. Yu; John Gorcsan; Martin St. John Sutton; Johan De Sutter; Jaime Murillo
Background— Data from single-center studies suggest that echocardiographic parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony may improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In a prospective, multicenter setting, the Predictors of Response to CRT (PROSPECT) study tested the performance of these parameters to predict CRT response. Methods and Results— Fifty-three centers in Europe, Hong Kong, and the United States enrolled 498 patients with standard CRT indications (New York Heart Association class III or IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, QRS ≥130 ms, stable medical regimen). Twelve echocardiographic parameters of dyssynchrony, based on both conventional and tissue Doppler–based methods, were evaluated after site training in acquisition methods and blinded core laboratory analysis. Indicators of positive CRT response were improved clinical composite score and ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months. Clinical composite score was improved in 69% of 426 patients, whereas left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased ≥15% in 56% of 286 patients with paired data. The ability of the 12 echocardiographic parameters to predict clinical composite score response varied widely, with sensitivity ranging from 6% to 74% and specificity ranging from 35% to 91%; for predicting left ventricular end-systolic volume response, sensitivity ranged from 9% to 77% and specificity from 31% to 93%. For all the parameters, the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for positive clinical or volume response to CRT was ≤0.62. There was large variability in the analysis of the dyssynchrony parameters. Conclusion— Given the modest sensitivity and specificity in this multicenter setting despite training and central analysis, no single echocardiographic measure of dyssynchrony may be recommended to improve patient selection for CRT beyond current guidelines. Efforts aimed at reducing variability arising from technical and interpretative factors may improve the predictive power of these echocardiographic parameters in a broad clinical setting.
The Lancet | 2010
Naveed Sattar; David Preiss; Heather Murray; Paul Welsh; Brendan M. Buckley; Anton J. M. de Craen; Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai; John J.V. McMurray; Dilys J. Freeman; J. Wouter Jukema; Peter W. Macfarlane; Chris J. Packard; David J. Stott; Rudi G. J. Westendorp; James Shepherd; Barry R. Davis; Sara L. Pressel; Roberto Marchioli; Rosa Maria Marfisi; Aldo P. Maggioni; Luigi Tavazzi; Gianni Tognoni; John Kjekshus; Terje R. Pedersen; Thomas J. Cook; Antonio M. Gotto; Michael Clearfield; John R. Downs; Haruo Nakamura; Yasuo Ohashi
BACKGROUND Trials of statin therapy have had conflicting findings on the risk of development of diabetes mellitus in patients given statins. We aimed to establish by a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data whether any relation exists between statin use and development of diabetes. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1994 to 2009, for randomised controlled endpoint trials of statins. We included only trials with more than 1000 patients, with identical follow-up in both groups and duration of more than 1 year. We excluded trials of patients with organ transplants or who needed haemodialysis. We used the I(2) statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for incident diabetes with random-effect meta-analysis. FINDINGS We identified 13 statin trials with 91 140 participants, of whom 4278 (2226 assigned statins and 2052 assigned control treatment) developed diabetes during a mean of 4 years. Statin therapy was associated with a 9% increased risk for incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.17), with little heterogeneity (I(2)=11%) between trials. Meta-regression showed that risk of development of diabetes with statins was highest in trials with older participants, but neither baseline body-mass index nor change in LDL-cholesterol concentrations accounted for residual variation in risk. Treatment of 255 (95% CI 150-852) patients with statins for 4 years resulted in one extra case of diabetes. INTERPRETATION Statin therapy is associated with a slightly increased risk of development of diabetes, but the risk is low both in absolute terms and when compared with the reduction in coronary events. Clinical practice in patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk or existing cardiovascular disease should not change. FUNDING None.
The Lancet | 2010
Karl Swedberg; Michel Komajda; Michael Böhm; J. Borer; Ian Ford; Ariane Dubost-Brama; Guy Lerebours; Luigi Tavazzi
BACKGROUND Chronic heart failure is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Raised resting heart rate is a risk factor for adverse outcomes. We aimed to assess the effect of heart-rate reduction by the selective sinus-node inhibitor ivabradine on outcomes in heart failure. METHODS Patients were eligible for participation in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study if they had symptomatic heart failure and a left-ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, were in sinus rhythm with heart rate 70 beats per min or higher, had been admitted to hospital for heart failure within the previous year, and were on stable background treatment including a β blocker if tolerated. Patients were randomly assigned by computer-generated allocation schedule to ivabradine titrated to a maximum of 7.5 mg twice daily or matching placebo. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for worsening heart failure. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN70429960. FINDINGS 6558 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (3268 ivabradine, 3290 placebo). Data were available for analysis for 3241 patients in the ivabradine group and 3264 patients allocated placebo. Median follow-up was 22.9 (IQR 18-28) months. 793 (24%) patients in the ivabradine group and 937 (29%) of those taking placebo had a primary endpoint event (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.90, p<0.0001). The effects were driven mainly by hospital admissions for worsening heart failure (672 [21%] placebo vs 514 [16%] ivabradine; HR 0.74, 0.66-0.83; p<0.0001) and deaths due to heart failure (151 [5%] vs 113 [3%]; HR 0.74, 0.58-0.94, p=0.014). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the ivabradine group (3388 events) than in the placebo group (3847; p=0.025). 150 (5%) of ivabradine patients had symptomatic bradycardia compared with 32 (1%) of the placebo group (p<0.0001). Visual side-effects (phosphenes) were reported by 89 (3%) of patients on ivabradine and 17 (1%) on placebo (p<0.0001). INTERPRETATION Our results support the importance of heart-rate reduction with ivabradine for improvement of clinical outcomes in heart failure and confirm the important role of heart rate in the pathophysiology of this disorder. FUNDING Servier, France.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | 2001
Stefano Ghio; Antonello Gavazzi; Carlo Campana; Corinna Inserra; Catherine Klersy; Roberta Sebastiani; Eloisa Arbustini; Franco Recusani; Luigi Tavazzi
OBJECTIVES We sought a better understanding of the coupling between right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), as it might improve the accuracy of the prognostic stratification of patients with heart failure. BACKGROUND Despite the long-standing view that systolic function of the right ventricle (RV) is almost exclusively dependent on the afterload that this cardiac chamber must confront, recent studies claim that RV function is an independent prognostic factor in patients with chronic heart failure. METHODS Right heart catheterization was performed in 377 consecutive patients with heart failure. RESULTS During a median follow-up period of 17 +/- 9 months, 105 patients died and 35 underwent urgent heart transplantation. Pulmonary artery pressure and thermodilution-derived RVEF were inversely related (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). However, on Cox multivariate survival analysis, no interaction between such variables was found, and both turned out to be independent prognostic predictors (p < 0.001). It was found that RVEF was preserved in some patients with pulmonary hypertension, and that the prognosis of these patients was similar to that of the patients with normal PAP. In contrast, when PAP was normal, reduced RV function did not carry an additional risk. CONCLUSIONS These observations emphasize the necessity of combining the right heart hemodynamic variables with a functional evaluation of the RV when trying to define the individual risk of patients with heart failure.
Circulation | 2002
Roberto Marchioli; Federica Barzi; Elena Bomba; Carmine Chieffo; Domenico Di Gregorio; Rocco Di Mascio; Maria Grazia Franzosi; Enrico Geraci; Giacomo Levantesi; Aldo P. Maggioni; Loredana Mantini; Rosa Maria Marfisi; G. Mastrogiuseppe; Nicola Mininni; Gian Luigi Nicolosi; Massimo Santini; Carlo Schweiger; Luigi Tavazzi; Gianni Tognoni; Corrado Tucci; Franco Valagussa
Background— Our purpose was to assess the time course of the benefit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on mortality documented by the GISSI-Prevenzione trial in patients surviving a recent (<3 months) myocardial infarction. Methods and Results— In this study, 11 323 patients were randomly assigned to supplements of n-3 PUFAs, vitamin E (300 mg/d), both, or no treatment (control) on top of optimal pharmacological treatment and lifestyle advice. Intention-to-treat analysis adjusted for interaction between treatments was carried out. Early efficacy of n-3 PUFA treatment for total, cardiovascular, cardiac, coronary, and sudden death; nonfatal myocardial infarction; total coronary heart disease; and cerebrovascular events was assessed by right-censoring follow-up data 12 times from the first month after randomization up to 12 months. Survival curves for n-3 PUFA treatment diverged early after randomization, and total mortality was significantly lowered after 3 months of treatment (relative risk [RR] 0...
Circulation | 2004
Douglas L. Mann; John J.V. McMurray; Milton Packer; Karl Swedberg; Jeffrey S. Borer; Wilson S. Colucci; Jacques Djian; Helmut Drexler; Arthur M. Feldman; Lars Køber; Henry Krum; Peter Liu; Markku S. Nieminen; Luigi Tavazzi; Dirk J. van Veldhuisen; Anders Waldenström; Marshelle Warren; Arne Westheim; Faiez Zannad; Thomas R. Fleming
Background—Studies in experimental models and preliminary clinical experience suggested a possible therapeutic role for the soluble tumor necrosis factor antagonist etanercept in heart failure. Methods and Results—Patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.30 were enrolled in 2 clinical trials that differed only in the doses of etanercept used. In RECOVER, patients received placebo (n=373) or subcutaneous etanercept in doses of 25 mg every week (n=375) or 25 mg twice per week (n=375). In RENAISSANCE, patients received placebo (n=309), etanercept 25 mg twice per week (n=308), or etanercept 25 mg 3 times per week (n=308). The primary end point of each individual trial was clinical status at 24 weeks. Analysis of the effect of the 2 higher doses of etanercept on the combined outcome of death or hospitalization due to chronic heart failure from the 2 studies was also planned (RENEWAL). On the basis of prespecified stopping rules, both trials were terminated prematurely owing to lack of benefit. Etanercept had no effect on clinical status in RENAISSANCE (P =0.17) or RECOVER (P =0.34) and had no effect on the death or chronic heart failure hospitalization end point in RENEWAL (etanercept to placebo relative risk=1.1, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33, P =0.33). Conclusions—The results of RENEWAL rule out a clinically relevant benefit of etanercept on the rate of death or hospitalization due to chronic heart failure.
Circulation | 2005
Mihai Gheorghiade; Faiez Zannad; George Sopko; Liviu Klein; Ileana L. Piña; Marvin A. Konstam; Barry M. Massie; Edmond Roland; Shari Targum; Sean P. Collins; Gerasimos Filippatos; Luigi Tavazzi
Acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) poses unique diagnostic and management challenges. This syndrome has recently received attention from researchers, clinicians, regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. However, there is no consensus on its definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, appropriate therapeutic options, and directions for future research. This document is the result of the First and Second International Workshop on Acute Heart Failure Syndrome that took place in May 2004 and April 2005. At these workshops, a selected group of physician scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, regulatory and governmental funding agencies, and industry representatives from North and South America and Europe convened to develop a platform for future investigative approaches and management of AHFS. Subsequently, emergency physicians, who play a pivotal role in the early management of AHFS, contributed to this document. AHFS is defined as gradual or rapid change in heart failure (HF) signs and symptoms resulting in a need for urgent therapy. These symptoms are primarily the result of severe pulmonary congestion due to elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures (with or without low cardiac output). AHFS can occur in patients with preserved or reduced ejection fraction (EF). Concurrent cardiovascular conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, valvular heart disease, atrial arrhythmias, and/or noncardiac conditions (including renal dysfunction, diabetes, anemia) are often present and may precipitate or contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome.1–3 HF hospitalizations have risen steadily, with >1 million in 2004 in the United States4; a similar number has been reported in Europe. In the United States, it is estimated that these hospitalizations account for >75% of the 46 billion dollars spent each year on the care of HF patients.4 Although much has been accomplished in the management of chronic HF, the absence of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for AHFS is striking in comparison to …
The Lancet | 2010
Michael Böhm; Karl Swedberg; Michel Komajda; J. Borer; Ian Ford; Ariane Dubost-Brama; Guy Lerebours; Luigi Tavazzi
BACKGROUND Raised resting heart rate is a marker of cardiovascular risk. We postulated that heart rate is also a risk factor for cardiovascular events in heart failure. In the SHIFT trial, patients with chronic heart failure were treated with the selective heart-rate-lowering agent ivabradine. We aimed to test our hypothesis by investigating the association between heart rate and events in this patient population. METHODS We analysed cardiovascular outcomes in the placebo (n=3264) and ivabradine groups (n=3241) of this randomised trial, divided by quintiles of baseline heart rate in the placebo group. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death or hospital admission for worsening heart failure. In the ivabradine group, heart rate achieved at 28 days was also analysed in relation to subsequent outcomes. Analysis adjusted to change in heart rate was used to study heart-rate reduction as mechanism for risk reduction by ivabradine directly. FINDINGS In the placebo group, patients with the highest heart rates (>or=87 beats per min [bpm], n=682, 286 events) were at more than two-fold higher risk for the primary composite endpoint than were patients with the lowest heart rates (70 to <72 bpm, n=461, 92 events; hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.84-2.98, p<0.0001). Risk of primary composite endpoint events increased by 3% with every beat increase from baseline heart rate and 16% for every 5-bpm increase. In the ivabradine group, there was a direct association between heart rate achieved at 28 days and subsequent cardiac outcomes. Patients with heart rates lower than 60 bpm at 28 days on treatment had fewer primary composite endpoint events during the study (n=1192; event rate 17.4%, 95% CI 15.3-19.6) than did patients with higher heart rates. The effect of ivabradine is accounted for by heart-rate reduction, as shown by the neutralisation of the treatment effect after adjustment for change of heart rate at 28 days (HR 0.95, 0.85-1.06, p=0.352). INTERPRETATION Our analysis confirms that high heart rate is a risk factor in heart failure. Selective lowering of heart rates with ivabradine improves cardiovascular outcomes. Heart rate is an important target for treatment of heart failure. FUNDING Servier, France.
European Heart Journal | 2013
Alida L.P. Caforio; Sabine Pankuweit; Eloisa Arbustini; Cristina Basso; Juan Gimeno-Blanes; Stephan B. Felix; Michael Fu; Tiina Heliö; Stephane Heymans; Roland Jahns; Karin Klingel; Ales Linhart; Bernhard Maisch; William J. McKenna; Jens Mogensen; Yigal M. Pinto; Arsen D. Ristić; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Hubert Seggewiss; Luigi Tavazzi; Gaetano Thiene; Ali Yilmaz; Philippe Charron; Perry M. Elliott
In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its distinct biopsy-proven pathogenetic forms. The aims are to bridge the gap between clinical and tissue-based diagnosis, to improve management and provide a common reference point for future registries and multicentre randomised controlled trials of aetiology-driven treatment in inflammatory heart muscle disease.